What the Corresponding Colors Mean in the Student Example and in the Source (the Textbook Pages)

Highlight, blue

Facts do exist for this in the source.

Highlight, pink (a reddish one on pages)

This word is from the source. A few words indicates passive reading; many words, plagiarism or “half-copy” plagiarism. Highlighting a single letter in pink (such as leave) means the student just used a different form (such as left) of a word from the source.

Highlight, yellow

This section of the source is misread or the student never read the required source. Highlighting a quotation mark () indicates the student changed the quotation without revealing the changes.

Highlight, green

Highlighting a quotation mark () indicates the student used the required quotation marks correctly.



What Is Not Finished on This Webpage?


Links to oral explanations for the 3 bullets below.  Possible Temporary solution: listen to the oral explanations for the Good Habits for Evidence (Reliable Sources Only) that is finished. Many of you will be able to use the highlighted words to figure out what is wrong with the other students’ essays without the oral explanations.


Click on the specific link for what you want to hear:

·         If you want to hear how to interpret the highlighting of words in the Student’s Essay

·         If you want to understand how the student lacks this essential Good Habit for Evidence: Factual Accuracy That You Verify with the Reliable Source Before You Write

·         If you want this student’s work placed in the context of a job – Never practice a skill no one will ever want in the workplace and certainly never have as your habit for work actions that will destroy your reputation.



Student 1—How the Student Worked Led to Errors in the Evidence


Student 1 wrote this answer: With Grant’s “Peace Policy,” reservations were created for Native Americans. If they accepted the church, the Native Americans would be left alone. If resistance came up, the army would be sent to stay on the reservations. To whites, the peace policy was humane. For native Americans, it was another in the long series of white efforts to undermine their way of life. The Dawes Severalty Act was passed in 1887. It authorized the president to survey Native American reservations and divide them into 160-acre farms. Reformers and westerners viewed the law differently. For the reformers, this law pushed Native Americans toward white civilization; for the western settlers, it made Indian land available.” The law actually undermined the tribal culture and helped allow whites to start mining and cattle ranching.


The good habit for evidence that Student 1 did not follow is:




For your source of facts, use only sources your boss (or professor) accepts as reliable. — For example, unless your boss (or professor) specifically tells you “Google this for me and copy anything you like from the Internet and email it to me,” don’t.



You must use reliable sources to verify everything that you write or say. To verify a fact means to confirm that the reliable source specifically states that fact (whether you wrote the words or the author did). — With bosses (or professors), you will be in trouble if you are incorrect, so never guess and instead verify before you write or speak.



If a boss (or professor) asks you for the proof of something that you said or wrote, you must be able to state the name of the reliable source and exactly where (a specific page) in that source that each fact came from (whether you wrote the words or the author did). — With bosses (or professors), you cannot just claim that a specific page provides evidence. If a reasonable person using a reliable dictionary and reading the entire passage on that page would not agree that you provided evidence, then neither will your boss (or professor).



If you use words (even phrases) created by another person, then follow standards for using quotation marks (“”) to reveal clearly to your reader what words you created and what words the author created. — This is a requirement in courses, and in some jobs failure to do this is a firing offense.



If you use quotation marks (“”) to reveal words created by another person but you change those words, then carefully reveal those changes by following standards for using quotation marks (“”), ellipses (…), and/or square brackets ([ ]). This may not be just a punctuation error. — Instead, by your changes, you may be misleading your reader about the evidence, and never mislead a boss (or professor) about the evidence.


The Source on the Peace Policy                                        If you want to see the whole page, click here.

What does the yellow (fading) highlight show you in the student example and the section of the source:

·         The meaning is accept presence of church officials, not accept the church (as in converting to a religion).

·         The meaning is the army makes the Indians stay on the reservation, not the army stays on it. (The army is keeping the Indians in.)






The Source on the Dawes Severalty Act                                        If you want to see the whole page, click here.



As for the grade, the quotations are accurate, but not placed in context. They are not enough to compensate for the factual errors that slide it to the “D” Paper Criteria column of the rubric.


Copyright C. J. Bibus, Ed.D. 2003-2014



WCJC Department:

History – Dr. Bibus

Contact Information:

281.239.1577 or bibusc@wcjc.edu

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