Unit 1 Study Guide – a guide to preparation for all parts of the Unit Exam
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Table of Contents
These issues are provided in this link because it is the same information for each Unit Exam: Click here for a link that covers that information for any Unit Objective Exam and for the Unit Written Exams for Unit 1 and Unit 2
Tip: There is no Written Exam for Unit 3.
This link cover how you must use the equivalent of endnotes and cite each fact
· In Chapter 1, the quiz on Basics of History You Need to Know and Do (Also in Unit 1 Objective Exam)
· Questions on the primary sources provided in each of the chapters in the Unit
1. Review in general the settlement of the New World. Focus on pre-Columbian Native Americas and in general their wide variation from Central and South America to North America across its breath before the coming of Columbus. Notice these peoples in this section and in the section of the textbook where they encounter Europeans:
· Aztecs and Incas – in Chapter 1
Algonquians and Iroquois – in Chapter 2
the expansion of Europe. To help you recognize the periods covered use the quiz
on the major eras and the link at the top of Figuring It Out (Learning is More
Notice how different the world is:
· From feudalism and serfs bound to the land and nobles owning that land
· To the rise of a “middle class” and of towns and cities
· To the Renaissance after the 1300s and its focus on science and tools for exploration
Columbus and Spain’s activities to the West
Tip: Do not assume about this era of exploration. Where was Columbus born and for what nation did he sail. What does that tell you about this era.
4. Notice the Treaty of Tordesillas (also known as the Line of Demarcation) and its purpose and consequences
5. Examine the changes in religion from Roman Catholicism to the Protestant Reformation. Notice:
· Martin Luther
· John Calvin
To help you recognize the differences in religion, their leadership, and their locations in Europe and in the New World, use the link at the top of Figuring It Out (Learning is More Than Memorizing).
6. Notice the Spanish actions in the new world:
· The Spanish and the conquistadores, including Cortés, and the Aztecs
· The Spanish and the Incas
· The Spanish and the introduction of the encomienda (a feudal system which they applied to the new world)
· The method used to control the Native Americans and the introduction of slavery of Africans
Caution: Read the primary for Chapter 1 to notice many things about this era, including slavery, vassalage, war, nation-state, religion.
7. Look with care at the term the Columbian Exchange. Notice not just the exchange of crops and foods and animals and the introduction of the horse to the New World, but also the 90% death rate of Native Americans from encounters with European diseases.
8. Notice the expansion of the Spanish conquest, where it occurred, the role of the monarchy, and religion (including with violence against the Pueblos).
9. Notice the French, one of the other new nations trying to gain a foothold in the New World .Notice where they went and their very different and limited approach. (The textbook will complete their history in Chapter 4, beginning on page 108. It is not covered in this chapter but they will later turn to the fur trade and become England’s prominent enemy in the mid-1700s.
also the Dutch (the name for people from The Netherlands) and the English—both
Protestant nations and both having citizens (with the English term being “sea
dogs”) turning to piracy of Spanish vessels heading from their gold mines in
the Americans back to Spain.
The shift of power begins with the defeat of the Spanish Invincible Armada. Notice Queen Elizabeth, Sir Walter Raleigh, and “lost colony” at Roanoke.
11. Look carefully. What weakened the Spanish empire and what strengthened the English one.
1. Be sure you understand and can explain these terms:
· Joint stock company (and how it worked as an economic motive for colonization)
· Royal charters and how they were essential
Tip: Do not assume about this era and its demographics. – Ask yourself why did the English take their families
2. Notice the English government’s 3 motives for colonization. Two are listed motives (raw materials the mother country does not have and a market for what the mother country does produce. What is the 3rd and how does that make the English colonies different from the Spanish and even the French?.
3. Be sure you understand and can recognize these terms about English traditions of liberty
· Parliament – House of Commons and House of Lords
· Magna Carta (Great Charter) of 1214
4. Be sure you recognize (but do not have to recall) this sequence of events
· Church of England (also called the Anglican Church) as an established church
Religious struggles against the Church of
England during the time of King James I
Additional religious struggles during the time
of King Charles I
- Presbyterian Scots
· Killing of the king (Charles I) by vote of Parliament
· Rule by Oliver Cromwell, a Puritan
· Restoration of Charles II (the son of Charles I) as the king. Tip: During this period, Charles II focused on supporting trade and new colonies and avoiding difficulties with Parliament.
· When he died, his brother James II was reckless and Catholic.
· Parliament invited in his daughter (a Protestant), and her husband (a Protestant)—William and Mary—and the new monarchs accepted new rules set by Parliament (The monarchy could not “suspend Parliament,” “create armies, or impose taxes without Parliament’s approval”—thus a movement called the Glorious Revolution that limits the monarchy and says it owes the people as well as the people own the king
5. Early (1600-1650) colonial development covered in your textbook in the South:
Jamestown – formed as a business venture by the
Virginia Company (It is a company of investors, not a royal colony.)
- income: cash crop of tobacco
- General Assembly (on page 111 called the House of Burgesses, a common name used)
- Dutch ship with Africans in 1619. Caution: Some African became slaves and some were servants and became free and even got land of their own. See page 91 and do not misread that page. The law becomes race-based only in the 1660s. In the Blackboard course, you will find details,
- Bankruptcy and a royal governor William Berkeley
- Catholic haven
- Lord Baltimore, proprietary (owned by a person, not a company)
- Act of Toleration Caution: Read that in the primaries before you think you know what they considered toleration.
- income: cash crop of tobacco
(1600-1650)colonial development covered in your textbook in New England
(furthest Northern area):
Income – sea (fishing, shipbuilding), crops in a more northern climate (See more in Chapter 3)
Plymouth in Massachusetts Bay
- Mayflower Compact – fell off course
- William Bradford
- General Court
- Officially a business venture, joint stock company
- John Winthrop
- General Court
- Roger Williams, to Rhode Island, know his issues
- Anne Hutchinson
Rhode Island – see Roger Williams’ beliefs
- See his relationship with the Native Americans on page 64)
Connecticut, New Hampshire, and Maine
- Thomas Hooker, Connecticut – Note: more voting than Massachusetts Bay
7. Late (1650s+) colonial development in the South
- From Barbados (notice what kind of place it is and how it treated slaves)
- feudal constitution (John Locke)
- royal colony after 1719
8. Middle Colonies (colonies between New England to the North and Maryland to the South)
New Amsterdam (1610s+)
- 1650s, English take control, gift to James, Duke of York from his brother King Charles II
- Allowed Jews (but their public worship)
· New Jersey—a gift by James II to two friends
- Inherited by William Penn
- Society of Friends (also called Quakers)
- Egalitarian and equality of the sexes
- Not a hierarchy (Ask if you are not familiar with the terms thee and thou), including a church hierarchy
- No payment of taxes
- Capital Philadelphia
- Open the colony to all
· Delaware, same governor as Pennsylvania but its own assembly
Southern colony – Georgia
- buffer colony to Spain
- by mid-1750s, royal colony
Rebellion and Native American struggle in the South
- Background: Early struggles in Virginia in time of John Smith
- 1676 multi-level struggle
- Indian war versus the whites without land (and from other sources the landless black)
- struggle between the 2 leaders Nathaniel Bacon (leader of the rebellion) and William Berkeley (governor)
- those with land and the landless (¼ “free white men in Viginia were landless” Caution: They had worked their years of indentured service but did not receive the land they expected.)
- charges of corruption in government and the rebels burning the capital of the colony Caution: Read the primaries before you think you know what happened and notice the issue of voting and land.
11. Native American struggle in New England
- Background: Early struggles in Massachusetts (whites with Narragansett tribe versus Pequots-a massacre)
- 1676 – King Phillip’s War (also known as Metacomet)
American struggle in South Carolina
- 1670-1715 50,000 Native Americans captured and sold away (Caribbean islands)
American struggle by the Iroquois League (also called the Iroquois
Confederation) Caution: think about the word Confederation.
- 1690s-1701 Algonquians + French fur traders versus Iroquois + English fur traders
Watch what happens in Chapter 4.
14. Slavery and Servitude
See the definitions provided with the quiz in Chapter 1.
· Indentured servant – Notice each of their traits
· Slavery of Native Americans (see # 12.)
· Before 1660, Africans with some as servants and as slaves Caution: Africans did not enslave in the same way the Europeans did.)
Notice the methods of the forts in Africa, the
“middle passage” (a “leg” of the triangular trade)
15. The transition among the English and more details about why the Spanish did not succeed
- created by companies
- open to different peoples and different religions
- more self-government
- coastal and open to world trade
In Chapter 3: Colonial Ways of Life, 1607–1750
- in Europe landless so willing to migrate even at risk of their lives
- in Europe land scarce, labor surplus
- in the Americas, the reverse
- in the Americas:
- rapid growth (doubling in 25
- climb to 2.5 million in 1775 Caution: : What is the result?
- more children per woman
- legal vulnerabilities
- more opportunity in colonies and if widowed
- large landholdings
- religion - not covered here, but usually officially Anglican as an established church
- economy cash crops or staple
crops such as tobacco or indigo and
Caution: that is a p not a b.
- trade with, not trading by
- wealth at the top
- biracial population
- mid-size to small landholdings
- religious but witchcraft trial in 1693 after 1700 and decline in early 1700s
- economy from the sea (fishing, shipbuilding, whaling) and locally produced food
- trade - triangular trade Caution: that label on 87 is with the wrong colonial region.
- homogenous population
- mid-size to large landholdings (See patroonships in New York, previously New Amsterdam)
- religious – diverse
- economy able to grow enough grains to export to South and to slave islands
- diverse population -many immigrants from many areas and faiths)
of Africans (page 91)
- 1620s some Africans were servants (forced labor for a period of years) and some were slaves (lifetime forced labor)
– 1660s, colonial legislatures defined slavery as applying to Africans only and as a lifetime of service (Caution: legislatures were dominated by planters, or large landowners.)
Caution: Read the primaries before you think you know what happened. You can see some of these slave codes with this chapter.
culture and cities
- Notice the region where the cities and ports are
8. Examine the Enlightenment (or the Age of Reason) and what it includes- Notice Ben Franklin.
the Great Awakeniing. – Notice Jonathan Edwards
Notice the new Protestant faiths and
1. Notice the locations of the colonies of France and Spain. Notice France’s new interest in this area and for what purpose.
more about the transition among the English and more details about why the
Spanish (and the French) did not succeed. The English colonies had:
- elected lower house of colonial legislatures who wrote local laws
- requirements for owning property to be able to vote but more men in the English colonies who could vote for those members of the lower house than in England
- frequently with those laws including the colonial budget
- frequently a governor of the colony who was appointed by the king—but whose salary came from the colonial legislature
- frequently an upper house legislature
3. Salutary (also called benign) neglect replaced
after about 1660 by mercantilism
- a dominant view held by many countries including the Spanish
- colony provides raw materials and perhaps (in Spain’s case) gold to the mother country
- colony buy products created by the mother country (and buys from no other country)
- mother country ships its difficult people to the colonies to reduce problems at home
- 1651 only in ships built and owned by Britain (but the Northern colonies are also Britain)
- 1660 listed goods (like tobacco) could only be sold to Britain
-1663 Staples (notice the p) Act - European goods went first to Britain, then taxes, then to the colonies
Revolution (for more, click here.)
- John Locke – 1690 - Two Treatise on Government – “natural rights of life, liberty, and property”
– New royal family, German speaking, the Hanovers—George
I, George II, George III
and the evolution of the prime minister form of government (not in your textbook)
French and Indian War
- 1754 Fort Necessity – George Washington
- 1754 Albany Plan – Ben Franklin
- 1755 Braddock toward French fort of Fort Duquesne
- 1756 declaration of war – Seven Year’s War or French and Indian War
- 1760 New king – George III
- 1763 Treaty of Paris
The British won but:
- Doubled the land (Louisiana Territory)
- Doubled the national debt
- Military to station in the new territories
- Pontiac’s Rebellion
- Royal Proclamation of 1763
- Sugar Act, a revenue act at the port—not just an act to control trade
- Currency Act
- Quartering Act
- Stamp Act – internal tax, an excise tax
- newspapers and pamplets
- documents like leases and deeds
Whigs (versus the Tories)
- theory of virtual representation versus actual representation
- American Whigs and British Whigs (like William Pitt)
10. The Colonies’s actions:
- Sons of Liberty – what did they do?
- Nonimportation (a later term boycott)
- Daughters of Liberty – what did they do?
- Call for the Stamp Act Congress – what is its issue? What did the British merchants have to do with this? Caution: Read the primary document.
- 1766 Townshend Acts – paint, lead, paper, and tea – officially an external tax
Caution: 10 years from the Declaration of Independence – it is a long way off.
- 1770 Lord North as the new prime minister
- 1770 Boston Massacre Caution: what’s a massacre? Was it one?
- Committees of Correspondence
- 1773 Boston Tea Party
- 1774 Coercive Acts (also known as the Intolerable Acts) in effect until the city pays for the destroyed tea
- Closed port
- Quartering Act in private lodging Caution: this is new so what does it mean?
- Officials appointed not elected Caution: What does that mean?
- No town meetings Caution: What does that mean?
1st Continental Congress – emphasis that we want our rights as British citizens
11. British response – Lord North – Conciliatory Propositions
No tax on a colony taxing itself for its military defense and for government’s salaries
12. April 14, 1775
Lexington – Minutemen in protest not battle
- 8 Minutemen dead
13. Concord (the British try to get back to base)- Guerrilla warfare (not his term)
- George Washington – commander in chief
15. 2nd Continental Congress to George III - Olive Branch Petition Caution: What does that mean?
- Rejected by the king
16. Thomas Paine Common Sense – 150,000 copies
17. Declaration of Independence
Caution: Look at the primaries for the 3 parts of this document?
18. Caution: Re the statement about Virginia’s Landon Carter about British eventually ending slavery on page 139. Britain will not end slavery in its colonies until 1833—that’s 57 more years.
You may take exams only 1 time; therefore, the password is
onetimeonly – no spaces and no capital letters.
Reminder: You also need to look at:
Practical Issues That Students Frequently Want
to Know the Two Parts of the Exam
Click here for a link that covers that information for any Unit Objective Exam and for the Unit Written Exams for Unit 1 and Unit 2
Copyright C. J. Bibus, Ed.D. 2003-2015
History – Dr. Bibus
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