Unit 1: From New World to New Empires – the 16th Century to 1776 (Chapters 1-4)

Click here for what the title shows about the unit.

Study Guide

The Objective Exam will consist primarily of multiple choice questions drawn from the terms below. The total value is 100 points. There are 25 questions each at 4 points. Reminder: Unit 1 consists of Chapters 1-4. The word Chapter refers to numbered parts a) of your textbook and b) to the specific Blackboard learning module for that chapter. Blackboard learning modules have a Table of Contents on the left that let you see all of the resources available so you can click on the one you want. All chapters have links from your instructor and a folder containing specific primaries. Some also include resources such as maps.


The 5 Ws rule is a good guide to understanding the items below: you should know Who, What, When, Where, and Why—and sometimes How.  You can look up these individual items in the textbook index at the back of the book or find them covered next to an item listed below. Instructor’s links provide visuals, usually in tables, that let you compare information so you can quickly see similarities and differences (such as items 28-31).


1.        pre-Columbian

2.        Columbian Exchange

3.        Aztecs

4.        Pueblos

5.        Algonguians

6.        Iroquois

7.        Treaty of Tordesillas (Line of Demarcation)

8.        Portugal

9.        Spain

10.     slave trade

11.     encomienda

12.     Christopher Columbus

13.     Hernan Cortes

14.     Roman Catholicism/Papacy

15.     Protestant Reformation

16.     Lutheranism

17.     Calvinism

18.     Anglicanism (Church of England)

19.     Magna Carta

20.     Parliament

21.     Charles I

22.     joint-stock company

23.     joint-stock company and colonization

24.     Glorious Revolution

25.     Response to Native Americans by the Spanish colonizers

26.     Response to Native Americans by the French colonizers

27.     Response to Native Americans by the English colonizers

28.     Colonization in the Americas by the Spanish

29.     Colonization in the Americas by the French

30.     Colonization in the Americas by the English

31.     Colonization in the Americas by the Dutch

32.     New England region and its traits

33.     Middle Colonies region and its traits

34.     Southern region and its traits

35.     Massachusetts Bay

36.     Roger Williams

37.     Anne Hutchinson

38.     Maryland

39.     Pennsylvania

40.     William Penn

41.     Virginia

42.     Virginia and Africans pre 1660

43.     Virginia and Africans post 1660

44.     Bacon’s Rebellion

45.     South Carolina

46.     South Carolina and Africans and Stono Rebellion

47.     Consequences of scarcity of labor and abundance of land

48.     Slaves and indentured servants and the colonies (Notice the difference in the two forms of servitude in the law and notice what colonies had these forms of servitude.)

49.     Women and the colonies

50.     Voting by colonists

51.     Representative assemblies in the colonies

52.     Taxation by the colonial assemblies

53.     Churches established (officially sanctioned) by colonies

54.     Great Awakening

55.     Enlightenment (Age of Reason)

56.     John Locke

57.     Ben Franklin

58.     Mercantilism by England and taxation

59.     French and Indian War, consequences on colonists

60.     French and Indian War, consequences on English debt

61.     Prime minister form of government in England

62.     Stamp Act and its declaration (Use the primary.)

63.     Sons of Liberty

64.     Boston Tea Party

65.     Coercive Acts

66.     Lord North’s Conciliatory Proposition

67.     Olive Branch Petition by the Continental Congress

68.     Thomas Paine’s Common Sense

69.     Declaration of Independence, major positions (Use the primary.)

70.     Declaration of Independence, major target (Use the primary.)


The Concept Exam will consist of a variety of types of questions ranging from multiple choice questions to short  answer. The total value is 50 points. The Required Concepts folder contains a list of all concepts, including which apply to Unit 1. I will explain in class any concept that will be on the exam. (FYI: I create my tests in sets so they vary for students.)


The Written Exam will consist of 1 essay written in class on notebook paper I will provide. You bring your textbook because you must cite the page number for each fact you use. I will grade your answer side by side with the textbook—I will know easily whether you read and wrote with care. The total value is 50 points with 25 points for contents and 25 points for following all 5 Good Habits for Evidence. I will state the possible questions during our talks together in class. You will then know all possible questions, but you will not know which one you will be asked on your exam.


What the Title Tells You about This Unit

We begin with the encounter in the 16th century (the 1500s) between:

·         Native Americans in North and South America

·         New nation states (a concept you need to know) of Europe
For these European nation states (Spain, Portugal, and later England, France, and the Netherlands), the Americas were a New World.


We end with the nation states having established empires with colonies (two concepts you need to know) and with the struggles between these nation states to maintain or enlarge their territories in the Americas.  The last imperial war in a series of wars in the Americas was the French and Indian War, which left England as the most powerful nation in North America and perhaps the most powerful in Europe as well. The taxes to pay for that expensive war were among the issues leading to 1776, a complex revolution whose intellectual foundation was approximately 100 years of thought called the Enlightenment.