Unit 2: From Making a Revolution to Making a Nation1776 to 1830s (Lessons 1-4)

Study Guide

The Unit Exam consists primarily of multiple choice questions in sets with different possible questions. The total value is 100 points. There are 25 questions in sets each at 4 points:

·         8 of the 25 questions come from the Learning Quizzes (and those concepts in the Learning Quizzes help you understand the content in the Unit)

·         17 of them come from below.   The Instructor’s links provide visuals, frequently in tables, to help you compare facts to see similarities and differences. To be efficient in studying, use the Lesson links, not the textbook. (Ctrl-F is a wonderful way to find what you need.)


The 5 Ws rule is a guide to understanding: you should know Who, What, When, Where, and Why—and sometimes How.


Lesson 1 –Use its Learning Quiz on Essential Terms 1st

1.       War for Independence and the Confederation

·         Patriot and British weaknesses and strengths

·         Saratoga, what it is and why is it significant including in what nations fight the British

·         Yorktown, what it is and why is it significant

·         Articles of Confederation- What is a confederation? How does it cause problems for the war effort?

·         Terms of the Treaty of Paris in 1783

Lesson 2 – Use its Learning Quiz on the Constitution 1st.

2.       Notice the differences in periods marked with blue.

3.       New nation under the Articles of Confederation

·         New state constitutions (with some states abolishing slavery and some creating state slave codes)

·         Northwest Ordinance, its parts and significance

·         Shays’s Rebellion, causes including financial troubles of the period and consequences

4.       New nation under the Constitution

·         The convention (why a convention?) and major compromises (large state/small state; slavery/ taxation/national voting; electoral college; powers given to Congress/President/national judiciary; and creation of a republic)

·         National protections for slaveholders and the slave trade (protection in addition to state slave codes)

·         Federalist Papers, authors and purpose in ratification

·         Anti-Federalists, who they are and their role in the Bill of Rights (what it that)

·         James Madison, diverse roles in the Constitution and Bill of Rights

5.       President George Washington (1788-1796)

·         President, setting precedents for the office

·         Congress, passing tariffs for income

·         Congress, passing laws establishing the executive departments and national judiciary

·         Congress, passing laws to create the national financial system using Secretary of Treasury Alexander Hamilton’s plan, including a National Bank (based on “implied powers”)

·         Whiskey Rebellion, causes and suppression

6.       President John Adams (1796-1800) – A difficult time spent primarily keeping us out of a European War and dealing with partisan politics.


Lesson 3 – Use its Learning Quiz on the 1783-1803 Map 1st
Election of 1800 and the peaceful transfer of power.

·         The Federalist Party lost the election; they went home.

·         The Democratic-Republicans won, but did not try to undo Federalist actions like the National Bank.

7.       President Thomas Jefferson (1800-1808) - Virginian

·         Marbury v. Madison (Covered in Lesson 4)

·         Reduction in taxes –but still able to buy the Louisiana Purchase

·         Ending of the slave trade when its constitutional protection of 20 years ended. (Slavery remains.)

·         European war (France and Britain and their allies) becomes US issue with impressment of our sailors

8.       President James Madison (1808-1816) – Virginian –dominated by the War of 1812 with the British

·         Native Americans as allies with the British in their last attempt to get their land back, but it fails, leading to removal of Native Americans in the North. (Covered in Lesson 4)

·         Battle of New Orleans after the end of the war and how Andrew Jackson becomes famous

Continues on the next page


Continues Lesson 3

9.       President James Monroe (1816-1824)  –Virginian (last of the so-called Virginia dynasty)

·         Era of Good Feelings

·         Monroe Doctrine, its purpose and author

·         Missouri Compromise and how new land and slavery came to a crisis in 1820

10.   President John Quincy Adams (1824-1828)

·         Election of 1824--so-called “corrupt bargain” and rise of Andrew Jackson

·         Decline of economic nationalism (what was it?)

11.   Election of 1828, conditions leading to it:

·         Use of public conventions to choose candidates (Parties previously used a caucus—a different meaning than the modern usage.)

·         Rise of universal white male suffrage. (States decreased property requirements to vote and this increased the number of white male voters. This begins in Jefferson’s time and escalates in Jackson’s. States vary; in the North some free blacks vote.)

12.   President Andrew Jackson (1828-1836)

·         The “spoils system” and its increasing volatility

·         Veto of the national bank (and later recession)

·         Attempt by South Carolina to “nullify” a national law about a tariff and how Jackson crushed that attempt
(Could states block a national law against slavery?)

·         Newly-independent Texas asks to be annexed, but its slavery means it is too volatile a time.

·         Removal of Native Americans in the South and the Trail of Tears (Covered in Lesson 4.)


Lesson 4 – Use its Learning Quiz on the 1800-1860 Map 1st.

13.   Removal of the Native Americans over time from the North and from the South to west of the Mississippi

14.   Transformation of the Supreme Court over time

·         Marbury v. Madison and judicial review

·         Chief Justice John Marshall, 1801-1835 and his decisions (corporations, power of the national government over the states)

15.   Development of sectional differences between the four sections: Northeast, Northwest, Southeast, and Southwest (with the eastern sections being the original colonies). Notice such things as whether urban/rural, use slaves (or not), have immigrants (or not), have factories (or not), have worn out land (or not), and transportation and internal improvements.

16.   Immigration and rise of nativism as a political party

·         Irish mainly to Northeast, type of work, their religion

·         Germans mainly to new Northwest, type of work

17.   Developing technology and economy in the North and wealth but lack of diversification in the South

·         Cotton gin, inventor and role in the westward expansion of slavery

·         Cotton textile mills, Lowell Mills in New England (but British textile mills were the major purchasers of Southern cotton)

·         New internal improvements in transportation mainly in the North—canals, turnpikes (toll roads), and later the railroad.

·         New means of transportation such as Conestoga wagons, steamboats, steamships, clipper ships

·         New agricultural machinery, such as Deere plow, McCormick reaper