Unit 2: From Making a Revolution to Making a Nation1776 to 1830s (Lessons 1-4)

Study Guide - TEMPORARY

The Objective Exam will consist primarily of multiple choice questions. The total value is 100 points. There are 25 questions each at 4 points. Reminder: This Unit consists of Lessons 1-4. The word Lessons refers to Blackboard learning modules. Blackboard learning modules have a Table of Contents on the left that let you see all of the resources available so you can click on the one you want. All Lessons have links from your instructor and sometimes additional resources such as maps and Learning Quizzes. Note:

·         8 of the 25 questions come from these Learning Quizzes (and those concepts in the Learning Quizzes help you understand the other content in the Unit, especially the ones on the Constitution)

·         17 of them come from below.  (Questions are written so you do not have to prove that you know everything, but that you know something.)


The 5 Ws rule is a good guide to understanding the items below: you should know Who, What, When, Where, and Why—and sometimes How. The Instructor’s links provide visuals, frequently in tables, to help you compare facts to see similarities and differences.       Tip: Remind me to tell you about a type of question that has ___ and ___.

1.        War issues (Resource: instructor’s links in Lesson 1):

·         War for Independence, Patriot and British weaknesses and strengths at the start

·         Saratoga, what it is and why is it significant including in what nations are fighting the British

·         Yorktown, what it is and why is it significant

·         Articles of Confederation, what is a confederation? How does it cause problems for the war effort (and in the nation’s first years)?

2.        Post-war issues (Resource: instructor’s links in Lesson 2):

·         Northwest Ordinance, its parts and significance

·         Shays’s Rebellion, its causes and the consequences

3.        Constitution (Resource: in Lesson 2, instructor’s links and Learning Quizzes on the framers and the Constitution):

·         Constitutional Convention and compromise (large state, small state issues; slavery and taxation and voting; creditors/debtors, electoral college, and creation of a republic)

·         Constitution, Madison’s roles

·         Slaveholder/slave trade protection in Constitution and slaveholder protection in state slave codes

·         Economic policy, who does what

·         Foreign policy and war, who does what

·         Federalist Papers, 3 authors and purpose in ratification

·         Bill of Rights, what it is and including the Anti-Federalists

4.        The New Republic from 1788-1800,
Presidents Washington and John Adams (Resource: instructor’s links in Lesson 2)

·         Rise of political parties, Federalists and Democratic Republicans (AKA Republicans—but they are not like modern Republicans)

·         1796-1800, party divisions on:
- National bank plus “implied powers”
- Financial policies of Hamilton
- Rise of economic nationalism (national bank, protective tariffs, and internal improvements)

·         Whiskey Rebellion, causes, suppression, and significance

·         Election of 1800 and the peaceful transfer of power

5.        President Jefferson (Resource: instructor’s links in Lesson 3)

·         Parties: Democratic-Republicans and Federalists

·         Louisiana Purchase, economic policies, ending of slave trade with Africa (U.S. slavery remains.)

6.        War of 1812  Issues In both of President Madison’s terms

·         Native Americans, allies with British in last attempt to get their land back. It fails leading to removal of them in the North

7.        President Monroe – last president from Virginia

·         Monroe Doctrine, its purpose and author

·         Missouri Compromise (See the caution in the instructor’s link and the primary in Lesson 3 and Learning Quizzes on the maps.)

8.        President John Quincy Adams

·         Election of 1824, so-called “corrupt bargain” of a tied election

·         Decline of economic nationalism

9.        1828-1836, President Andrew Jackson

·         The “spoils system”

·         Veto of the national bank (and recession )

·         States’ rights views BUT stops nullification attemp in South Carolina (and what makes the state volatile) – a prelude to a later secession attempt

·         Removal of Native Americans in the South and the Trail of Tears


Changes that develop and increase over time (See Lesson 3 and 4):

10.     Supreme Court, corporations, national government over states

·         Marbury v. Madison and judicial review

·         Chief Justice John Marshall, 1801-1835 and his decisions

11.     Suffrage shifting with states decreasing property requirements to vote and increasing the number of white male voters (Begins in Jefferson’s time and escalates in Jackson’s. States vary; in the North some free blacks vote.)

12.     Immigration and rise of nativism as a political party

·         Irish mainly to the Northeast, type of work, their religion

·         Germans mainly to the new Northwest, type of work

13.     Fertility of land:

·         Northeast and Southeast depleted farmland

·         Northwest and Southwest 4 X the productivity

14.     Developing technology and diversified economy in the North; wealth in slavery and cash crops in the South –What are differences between 4 regions of the Northeast, Southeast (old colonial areas), Northwest, and South west (newly settled areas) and how they became the North and the South

·         Cotton gin, inventor; role in the westward expansion of slavery

·         Cotton textile mills, Lowell Mills in New England (but British textile mills were the major purchasers of Southern cotton)

·         New internal improvements in transportation mainly in the North—canals, turnpikes (toll roads), and later railroad (Erie Canal - See Lesson 4 and the Learning Quiz on this.)

·         New means of transportation—Conestoga wagons, steamboats, steamships, clipper ships

·         New agricultural machinery in the North—Deere plow, McCormick reaper (but not in the South)