Changes from circa 1800 to 1820 to 1840



Circa 1800

Circa 1820

Circa 1840


1776 - Shays’s - Whiskey

Latin America but Haiti

Monroe Doctrine


Protection of slavery and slave trade

Constitution – but the Constitution can be amended

End of slave trade

Northern population and representatives higher


End of slavery

1776 +  black hopes;  N states abolishing (PA)

Gabriel (VA)[1]

C. Deslondes[2]

D. Vesey [3](SC);  D. Walker[4] (North); N. Turner[5] (VA)

Discussed only in N>>>

“ and Land

1783 to Miss. River; NW Ordinances

LA. Purchase (Land = Nationalism)

Missouri (Land + slavery = Sectionalism)


>>> This ‘isms continue

“ “ “ and Voting

3/5s Compromise

Territories becoming states

No more S. Senators and Reps. from LA. Purchase

FYI: the South looks for other ways to expand


Colonies more than England

West more than East

Universal white male suffrage



Federalist blunders and grassroots campaigning - Revolution of 1800

Grassroots continues & Era of Good Feelings

Brief rise and fall of economic nationalism,& John Quincy Adams, but “corrupt bargain”





Conventions (an American Party nativist pattern) & spoils system (so constant campaign)


Military heroes


Barbary & War of 1812 (Hero: A. Jackson)

Jackson—military hero & candidate Democrats

>>>>> (Why military heroes as candidates?)

Indians N

West of Appalachians

West of Miss. River (Hero: W.H. Harrison) + War of 1812



Harrison as military hero candidate for Whig Party (against “King Andrew”)

Indians S


Civilized Tribes

1830s – West of Miss. River


Supreme Court review

Established but weak

Marshall – judicial review#

1830s – Congress & Jackson want them gone@


“ “ power


Cases pro-national power, pro-corporations

Central until Marshall’s death

Corporation protections continue >>>>>

Hamilton’s national bank&

Chartered by New Republic for 20 years

Renewed for 20 years, but blamed for Panic of 1819

Destroyed by Jackson & Congress (NE still favors)-but 1 cause of Panic of 1837


Hamilton’s protective tariff&

Rejected initially

Rejected, but put in place for textiles in 1816

Threatened secession over Tariff of Abominations by South Carolina;


Nullification or secession threat

Nullification over Alien & Sedition Acts – freedom of speech/press

Secession threat over War of 1812 (NE)

Nullification of tariff (but hope as method to protect slavery); Jackson & Congress stop secession


Economy – NE

Old lands – farmers as surplus labor

Textile factories – Raw cotton from S

Continues with more factories; farming for cities

In the future, Irish


Examples: clipper ship

Economy - NW

New lands (4 X productivity of old land)

Sold to NE  & world

Continues; use farming technology, not slavery

In the future, German


Examples: McCormick reaper, John Deere plow

Economy – SE (upper)

Old land – slaves surplus labor but cotton gin revives slavery

Begins SE slaves sold to SW - forced migration

Continues SE slaves sold to SW & Texas - forced migration


Economy – SW (deep)


New land & global market crop
Cotton – Sold to N

Cotton – Sold to N & Britain


Transportation N & internal improvements&

Rivers & Ports

Rivers & roads - turnpikes

Canals NW-NE; New York City to the world
Examples: Erie Canal

NW – NE becoming 1

Transportation S



Steamboats on Miss. River

Steamships to Liverpool

SW – SE becoming 1 (with Britain)

& 3 parts of economic nationalism – identified with John Quincy Adams, the National Republicans, and later some Whigs

# If you order someone NOT to do something they don’t want to do, you haven’t proved anything about your power.
@ If you order someone to do something they don’t want to do, then we know your (lack of) power.


Who Were the Chief Justices of the Supreme Court?

1.     1800-1835 - Chief Justice John Marshall, the Chief Justice appointed by the last Federalist President, John Adams in 1800 during the lame duck period
More power to the national government, to the Supreme Court, and to corporations and contracts

Two cases

·         Marbury v. Madison established judicial review (in part because the executive branch was ordered to do what it planned to do anyway)

·         How review by the court was handled by the executive regarding the Cherokee:  There are 2 Supreme Court decisions in favor of the Cherokees, in 1830 and 1832, Cherokee Nation v. Georgia and Worcester v. Georgia. They do not have a consequence, however, because the executive branch ignores them.


2.     1835-1864 - Chief Justice Roger Taney, the jurist with a different view from Marshall who was appointed by Andrew Jackson at Marshall’s death.


What Are the Shifts in Who Votes (Suffrage), How Candidates Are Chosen, and How Campaigning Works

Your textbook covers several shifts in suffrage (voting) and in politics:

1.     The evolution from property requirements to vote to white universal manhood suffrage about 1828.

2.     The shift in how candidates were chosen:

o    From about 1800 to the 1820s, candidates were chosen by a caucus (a talk within a group) of political party members who had been elected to office (as in member of the House of Representatives or a Senator). At that time, Being Secretary of State was considered necessary preparation to run for President because of its responsibilities for foreign policy.

o    The Jacksonian period brought a rejection of what they called “King Caucus” (with King being a dirty word because of its association with King George III). The political party convention replaced it—at that time a very volatile meeting of delegates who choose the candidate for President.

3.     The Jacksonian era use of the “spoils system” meant that federal workers chosen by their political party did campaigning for their party as part of their jobs on the federal payroll.


Other things are going on as well to alter voting that your book does not cover. Examples:

§  States determine who votes. The NEW western states offered:

o    Not only more opportunities for men to get land (with property being traditionally a voter requirement)

o    But also more liberal voting rules in hopes of getting settlers.

§  By the Jacksonian era, citizens in the eastern states began to demand the same voting opportunities as those in the west.

§  State laws change, and voters (not the state legislatures) are deciding the Electoral College results.








Copyright C. J. Bibus, Ed.D. 2003-2016


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History – Dr. Bibus

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[1] Covered in Chapter 11 on page 368

[2] Covered in Chapter 11 on page 369

[3] Covered in Chapter 11 on page 369

[4] Covered in Chapter 12 on page 400.

[5] Covered in Chapter 11 on page 370