Lesson 2: Manifest Destiny and the Impending Crisis

Lesson 2 – Use its Learning Quiz Maps 1st.

5.      Free Soil movement (West and North), political party

6.      “manifest destiny”

7.      1844 Election, James Knox Polk, on Texas and Oregon

8.      1846 Mexican War, Texas/Mexico boundary dispute

9.      1848 Mexican War, territory gained and not gained

10.   1849 California Gold Rush; 1850 free state admission

11.   Compromise of 1850 – its parts

12.   Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin

13.   1850s – American Party (Know Nothing) - nativism

14.   1853 Gadsden Purchase--South’s desired railroad route

15.   Popular sovereignty (dangers of) and the Kansas Nebraska Act--North’s desired railroad route

16.   “Bleeding Kansas” (majority of Kansans pro-free-state)

17.   John Brown in Kansas

18.   Preston Brooks’ attack on Senator Charles Sumner

19.   Rise of Republican Party, Abraham Lincoln, a moderate

20.   John Brown at Harper’s Ferry

21.   Lincoln’s view on slavery in Lincoln-Douglas Debates, in 1st Inaugural Address, and when the South 1st seceded

22.   Secession crisis: South Carolina firing on Fort Sumter before Lincoln takes office); Southern jubilation

23.   Confederacy (traits of government), Jefferson Davis

Click http://www.cjbibus.com/1301_Unit_3_Lesson_2_Landscape.pdf. Link Address: http://www.cjbibus.com/1301_Unit_3_Lesson_2_Landscape.pdf

Reminders, Colors, and Symbols Used in the 1st Two Columns


§  Slave states = Have only the Senate to protect slavery + two pro-slavery Presidents in 1852 (Franklin Pierce) and 1856 (James Buchanan)

§  Democrat and Whig Parties contained PRO and ANTI slavery advocates (Unlike the Republican Party, they were both national parties, not sectional ones.)


Colors Associated with the Union and the Confederacy

§  Blue – the Union – the 23 states of the North (with that 23 total including 4 slave-holding border states)

§  Gray – the Confederacy – the 11 states of the South


Symbols in the 1st two columns:

> = push by ANTI-Slavery

< = push by PRO-Slavery

F> (future possibility for ANTI-slavery

<F  (future possibility for PRO-slavery)

P> (perceived threat to ANTI-slavery) – perceived = to regard something as

<P  (perceived threat to PRO-slavery)

Events and Trends Leading to Civil War: Perceptions and Realities

If you would prefer a printable 2-page table, click here. Link Address: http://www.cjbibus.com/1830-1860_Perceptions_and_Realities_Landscape.pdf


ANTI Slavery

PRO Slavery


Event or Trend

Perceptions and Realities¾View from the North and South and from PRO Slavery and ANTI Slavery Factions




Republic of Mexico

Mexico independent from Spain with northern provinces (today from TX  to CA)





Election: Andrew Jackson# (Democrat)




TX Independence from Mexico/Lone Star Rep.

Why did it remain the Lone Star Republic? How many potential slave states, each with 2 pro-slavery Senators? What was Mexico’s position?





Election: Martin Van Buren (Democrat)




“Manifest destiny”


What is it? What is “allocated by Providence”?   Who coined the term?  John L. O’Sullivan

How moved west? Overland Trails (OR, CA) +  Plains Indians/buffalo

Where are the future targets? Canada, Cuba, Hawaii, Mexico





Election: William Henry Harrison# (Whig; later dies, John Tyler V.P.)





Slave rebellion during transport from VA to LA; then to Bahamas and Br. free them




Webster-Ashburton Treaty

US/Br. patrols of African coast to stop the slave trade (also NE boundary with Canada)





Election: James K. Polk (Democrat)  OR 54° 40’ or fight (>); TX annexation (< )



1845-02 28

TX, a state

Why Tyler? (lame duck +) Method to pass?



1845-03 04


Polk inaugural




Mexican War starts

Rio Grande vs. Nueces (TX)-Gen. Zackary Taylor - Santa Fe (NM)/Bear Flag Republic(CA)




OR dispute resolved

US/Br. negotiations – OR northern boundary remains 49°




Wilmot Proviso (condition)

No slavery in territory taken from Mexico – Wilmot (Democrat, North) - sectional vote


<F - IF


Mexican War ends

US paid Mexico: $15M + $3M in claims by US citizens. US got: AZ, CA, NV, and UT.

US got: US-Mexico border at Rio Grande.

<F = If Missouri Compromise continues and if 36° 30’ continues





Election: Zachary Taylor# (Whig; later dies, Millard Fillmore V.P.)  vs. Democrat (popular sovereignty) vs. Free Soil&





Forty-niners (a lot of them); territorial convention decides a free state



1850-02 to 09

Compromise of 1850

Major player: Stephen Douglass (IL, Democrat, Senator) - Legislation in this package:





·        California as a free state





·        No slave trade in the District of Columbia





·        NM (TX gets $10M, debt problem) and UT territories by popular sovereignty





·        More powerful Fugitive Slave LawRequired return/punished those helping them




Uncle Tom’s Cabin

Author? Harriet Beecher Stowe          Why matter? 300,000 US copies





Election: Franklin Pierce (Democrat) vs. Winfield Scott# (Whig)




Gadsden Purchase

US paid Mexico: $15M.  Why the purchase?



1854-01 – 05

Kansas-Nebraska Act

Major player: Stephen Douglass      Why the legislation? ____________________

Repeal Missouri Compromise + Kansas & Nebraska territories by popular sovereignty




Revolt of factions starts



Revolt results

Foundation of Republican Party = 

·        Anti-slavery Northern Democrats

·        Anti-slavery Northern Whigs – a shift in Whigs such as Abraham Lincoln

·        Free Soilers - No slavery in the territories

·        Nativist party (a.k.a. Know Nothings—write in candidates and win regionally)




“Bleeding Kansas” – This is not a dramatic term. There is bloodshed.

What are the unintended consequences of the principle of popular sovereignty?

Multiple attacks from both directions resulting in a civil war over slavery:

§  1st weak and 2nd PRO Slavery territorial governor

§  PRO Slavery legislature - fraud/violence by about 5K Missourians (border ruffians)

§  ANTI Slavery center at Lawrence, Kansas; counter constitution

§  PRO Slavery sack of Lawrence—burned hotel, attacked homes, burned newspapers

§  ANTI Slavery attack by John Brown’s  group¾killed 5 PRO Slavery people, mutilated bodies displayed – Pottawatomie Massacre




Events in Senate chamber

Preston Brooks? Charles Sumner? – Leads more Northerners to Republican Party





Election: James Buchanan (Democrat)




Dred Scott case

Ruling by Supreme Court (Roger Taney Court):- 2 key points: Slaves are not citizens and cannot sue. Missouri Compromise is unconstitutional violation of due process by Congress.



1857-10 -12

Fraud in another Kansas election

Majority of Kansans were free-state. What does Douglas do?

(Kansas not admitted until 1861, after secession)




7 Lincoln-Douglas debates

Senate contest in Illinois:

§  Abraham Lincoln – Moderate: not abolitionism, slavery remains but no expansion

§  Stephen Douglas




Raid at Harpers Ferry, VA

Who does it?  What’s at Harpers Ferry? What’s the objective?





Election: Abraham Lincoln , Republican (highest popular vote but only 39%; 180 electoral votes to 123, all 18 free states)  – 3-way split of the Democratic Party (North, South, and Constitutional Union)



1860-11, 12

Secession crisis

Secession - South Carolina 1st  (Federal fort, Fort Sumter, in Charleston harbor)





Buchanan – unarmed ship, supplies to Fort Sumter in Charleston harbor




Another election

Who is elected? Jefferson Davis%, President; Alexander Stephens%, Vice-President

What’s their Constitution? Confederacy     - 6 more secede (AL, FL, GA, LA, MS TX)




Lincoln inaugural address

Slavery remains where it exists, but he will “hold, occupy, and possess” federal property%




Fort Sumter

Before supplies can reach Fort Sumter, 1st shots fired by South Carolina. How does that look?

After Fort Sumter:  11 total (VA, AR, TN, and NC). Slave-holding states not seceding from the Union:

§  In the South, western Virginia (separate state of West Virginia in 1863)

§  In the North, Delaware, Missouri, Maryland, and Kentucky (Why important in Lesson 3.)

# Military hero                &Replaces earlier Liberty Party. Spoiler party. Slogan: “Free soil, free speech, free labor, and free men.”

Abbreviations for states:

§  AL = Alabama

§  CA = California

§  CO = Colorado

§  FL = Florida

§  GA = Georgia

§  KS = Kansas

§  MO = Missouri

§  MS = Mississippi

§  NE = Nebraska

§  NM = New Mexico

§  OR = Oregon

§  TX = Texas

§  UT = UT





Copyright C. J. Bibus, Ed.D. 2004-2021


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