Unit 3: Transforming the Nation–1830s to 1877 (Chapters 11-15)

Study Guide

The Objective Exam will consist primarily of multiple choice questions drawn from the terms below. The total value is 100 points. There are 25 questions each at 4 points. Reminder: Unit 3 consists of Chapters 11-15. The word Chapter refers to numbered parts a) of your textbook and b) to the specific Blackboard learning module for that chapter. Blackboard learning modules have a Table of Contents on the left that let you see all of the resources available so you can click on the one you want. All chapters have links from your instructor and a folder containing specific primaries. Some also include resources such as maps. The Objective Exam is available for 30 minutes. The password for all exams is onetimeonly (no capital letters and no spaces).


The 5 Ws rule is a good guide to understanding the items below: you should know Who, What, When, Where, and Why—and sometimes How.  You can look up these individual items in the textbook index at the back of the book or find them covered next to an item listed below. Use the textbook with Instructor’s links that provide visuals, usually in tables, to help you compare information to see similarities and differences.

1.        North and South compared – commerce, agriculture, labor, banking, urban areas (cities), immigration to, transportation, technology, literacy or lack of it

2.        South’s characteristics from the 1830s

·         “peculiar institution”

·         Slavery as a “positive good” (earlier view as a “necessary evil”)

·         Views, anti-city, pro-agrarian, pro-white

·         Dominance of planters in (although they are a minority)

·         Slavery and cotton, main international markets, dependence on cotton gin

·         Slaves, quantity used in cotton production and increase in quantity over time

3.        Sojourner Truth, African American, former slave, abolitionist, speaker for women’s rights (See primary in Chapter 11.)

4.        Rebellions by slaves or free blacks, Gabriel Prosser, Charles Deslondes, Denmark Vesey, Nat Turner.

5.        American Colonization Society, an early movement to deal with slavery by returning freed slaves to Liberia in Africa

6.        North’s characteristics from the 1830s

·         Varied general reform movements (examples in 7.)

·         Against slavery: American Anti-Slavery Society, a small movement for immediate abolition of slavery, and
- William Lloyd Garrison (newspaper The Liberator)
- Frederick Douglass, African American, former slave, abolitionist (newspaper The North Star)

·         Against slavery: Underground railroad

7.        Examples of the North’s varied general reform movements

·         Horace Mann, public education, and literacy

·         Insane asylums and prisons and Dorothea Dix

·         Second Great Awakening

·         Suffrage and Susan B. Anthony

·         Temperance

·         Transcendentalism Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau (also the author of Civil Disobedience”

·         Utopian communes (such as Shakers)

Tip: For the next events, use the instructor’s link in Chapter 13.

8.        Free Soil movement (West and North) and political party to stop expansion of slavery to the territories

9.        “manifest destiny” and John L. O’Sullivan

10.     Westward expansion - consequences on Native Americans

11.     1844 Election of James Knox Polk with a platform of annexation of Texas (happens) and taking British territory to expand Oregon (does not happen)

12.     Mexican War, starts with a Texas/Mexico boundary dispute

13.     Wilmont Proviso (proviso = a condition)

14.     Mexican War, territory gained

15.     1849 California Gold Rush

16.     California’s request for admission as a free state

17.     Compromise of 1850

18.     Fugitive Slave Act – part that offended most Northerners

19.     Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin

20.     Popular sovereignty (dangers of) and the Kansas Nebraska Act

21.     “Bleeding Kansas” (with majority of Kansans being pro-free-state)

22.     John Brown in Kansas

23.     Preston Brooks’ attack on Senator Charles Sumner

24.     Split in the Democratic party and rise of the Republican Party and of Abraham Lincoln, a moderate

25.     John Brown at Harper’s Ferry

26.     Lincoln’s positon on slavery or secession (Don’t assume!)

·         In the Lincoln-Douglas Debates

·         In the 1st Inaugural Address

·         When the South 1st seceded

·         When the South was defeated

27.     1860-1861, month of Lincoln’s election and month of his taking office

28.     Secession crisis, South Carolina firing on a federal fort, Fort Sumter, (before Lincoln takes office)

29.     Confederacy formed, Jefferson Davis elected

Tip: For the next events, use the instructor’s link in Chapter 14 (Quick Reference to the Civil War).

30.     Confederacy’s initial goals of the war (Don’t assume!)

31.     Northern purposes for the blockade of the South

32.     Northern and Southern strengths and weaknesses for war - commerce, agriculture, labor, banking, urban areas (cities), immigration to, transportation, technology, literacy or lack of it, communication, government infrastructure

33.     Northern and Southern strengths and weakness for financing the war (for collecting taxes, buying needed things, paying soldiers and other employees, paying for purchases)

34.     Legal Tender Act– greenback in the North; inflation in South

35.     Legislation passed while the South was out of the Union: protective tariffs, National Banking Act, Homestead Act, Morrill Land Grant Act, transcontinental railroad (p. 585-586)

36.     Draft, North and South

37.     1862, Antietam (significance) and stating the proclamation to come

38.     1863, Emancipation Proclamation (limitations on where it applied)

39.     Contraband of war – the meaning

40.     Medicine and nursing (female) and the Civil War (See primaries for Chapter 14.)

41.     1863, Gettysburg (significance)

42.     1863, Vicksburg (significance)

43.     1864, Sherman’s March to the Sea (significance)

44.     1864, Election of 1864 (significance on continuance of the war)

45.     1865, 13th Amendment passed

46.     1865, Appomattox (significance)

47.     1865, Lincoln assassinated; President Andrew Johnson (who is he?)

48.     Northern and Southern strengths and weakness at the end of the war


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49.     Actions when a slave became a freedman

·         First action, seek separated family members

·         Later action, form schools for their children

50.     1865, South’s action – Black codes (state codes)

51.     1865, 13th amendment ratified by the states

52.     1866, to stop Black codes, 1st Civil Rights Act, 2nd as 14th Amendment – major parts – States, not just Congress, could not violate “due process”; citizenship defined

53.     1866, South’s action – race riots in Memphis and New Orleans

54.     1866, Klu Klux Klan starts

55.     1866 (a mid-term election), Northern response by voters

56.     Military Reconstruction Act

57.     1868, 15th Amendment proposed

58.     1668, impeachment of Andrew Johnson

59.     1868, Election – US Grant – “waving the bloody shirt” campaign

60.     1870, Attacks on African American voters (notice black males are voting), Grant’s response

61.     1870, KKK again but this time stopped by KKK Act

62.     1872- scandals in the Grant administration

63.     1873, Panic of and unemployment

64.     Throughout this period, rise of sharecropping and tenant farming and the crop-lien system (See primaries for Chapter 15.)

65.     1876, Election
Republican Hayes had viewer popular votes
Democrat Tilden had more popular votes
Disputes over the electoral results in 4 states

66.     Compromise of 1877 (what does it do? What does the South get for the Democrats not fighting over the electoral college results?

67.     What’s the legacy of the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments?


The Concept Exam will consist of a variety of types of questions ranging from multiple choice questions to short essay. The total value is 50 points.

The Required Concepts folder contains a list of all concepts, including which apply to Unit 3. One week before the opening of the Unit Concepts Exam, I will place a specific list here if one or more students post in Course Questions that he or she would like to see that list. You will then know all possible questions, but you will not know which one you will be asked on your exam. (FYI: I create my tests in sets so they vary for students.) All Concepts exams are 25 minutes. The Concepts Exam for Unit 3 consists of 10 multiple choice definitions of concepts at 4 points each. You have a short answer for 10 points. Using 2 of the concepts you are asked, you give examples of uses of that concept in Unit 3.

Link to the Concepts with asterisks


You do not have a Written Exam for Unit 3. You will be working on your Analysis of Primaries.