Unit 3: Transforming the Nation–1830s to 1877 (Lessons 1-4)

Study Guide

The Objective Exam will consist primarily of multiple choice questions. The total value is 100 points. There are 25 questions each at 4 points. Reminder: This Unit consists of Lessons 1-4. The word Lessons refers to Blackboard learning modules. Blackboard learning modules have a Table of Contents on the left that let you see all of the resources available so you can click on the one you want. All Lessons have links from your instructor and sometimes additional resources such as maps and Learning Quizzes. Note:

·         8 of the 25 questions come from these Learning Quizzes for this Unit (and those concepts in the Learning Quizzes help you understand the other content in the Unit)

·         17 of them come from below.  


The 5 Ws rule is a good guide to understanding the items below: you should know Who, What, When, Where, and Why—and sometimes How. The Instructor’s links provide visuals, frequently in tables, to help you compare facts to see similarities and differences.
If you need more than is in the Lessons on any specific issue listed here, just ask. This Guide has more detail than others. Let me know if it helps.

Tip: For the next events, use the instructor’s link in Lesson 1.

1.        North and South compared – traits from the past still apply

2.        Development of South’s characteristics from the 1830s

·         “peculiar institution”

·         Slavery as a “positive good” (earlier view as a “necessary evil”)

·         Slavery and cotton, international markets (Britain, France), dependence on cotton gin as only technology

3.        American Colonization Society, an early movement in both North and South to deal with slavery by paying the master and returning freed slaves to Liberia in Africa

4.        North’s characteristics from the 1830s

·         Varied general reform movements (examples in 7.)

·         Against slavery: American Anti-Slavery Society, a small movement for immediate abolition of slavery, and

·         William Lloyd Garrison (newspaper The Liberator)

·         Frederick Douglass, African American, former slave, abolitionist (newspaper The North Star)

·         Against slavery: Underground railroad

5.        Examples of the North’s varied general reform movements

·         Insane asylums and prisons and Dorothea Dix

·         Suffrage and Susan B. Anthony

·         Temperance

·         Utopian communes (such as Shakers)

Tip: For the next events, use the instructor’s link in Lesson 2.

6.        Free Soil movement (West and North) and political party to stop expansion of slavery to the territories

7.        “manifest destiny”

8.        1844 Election of James Knox Polk with a platform of annexation of Texas (happens) and taking British territory to expand Oregon (does not happen)

9.        Mexican War, starts with a Texas/Mexico boundary dispute

10.     Mexican War, territory gained

11.     1849 California Gold Rush

12.     California’s request for admission as a free state Compromise of 1850

13.     Fugitive Slave Act – part that offended most Northerners

14.     Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin

15.     Gadsden Purchase of 1853--South’s desired railroad route

16.     Popular sovereignty (dangers of) and the Kansas Nebraska Act--North’s desired railroad route

17.     “Bleeding Kansas” (majority of Kansans pro-free-state)

18.     John Brown in Kansas

19.     Preston Brooks’ attack on Senator Charles Sumner

20.     Rise of Republican Party, Abraham Lincoln, a moderate

21.     John Brown at Harper’s Ferry

22.     Lincoln’s positon on slavery in Lincoln-Douglas Debates, in 1st Inaugural Address, and when the South 1st seceded

23.     Secession crisis, South Carolina firing on a federal fort, Fort Sumter, (before Lincoln takes office)

24.     Confederacy (meaning of word) formed, Jefferson Davis elected

Tip: For the next events, use the instructor’s link in Lesson 3

25.     Initial goals of the Confederacy and the North

26.     Northern purposes for the blockade of the South

27.     Northern and Southern strengths and weaknesses for war-- traits from the past still apply

28.     Northern and Southern strengths and weakness for financing the war (for collecting taxes, buying needed things, paying soldiers and other employees, paying for purchases)

29.     Legal Tender Act– greenback in the North; inflation in South

30.     Draft, North and South (Wealthy pay for substitute)

31.     1862, Antietam (significance) and stating the proclamation to come

32.     1863, Emancipation Proclamation (limitations on where it applied)

33.     Medicine and nursing (female) and the Civil War – Example: Clara Barton (Her experience later leads her to form the Red Cross).

34.     1863, Gettysburg (significance)

35.     1863, Vicksburg (significance)

36.     1864, Sherman’s March to the Sea (significance)

37.     1864, Election of 1864 (significance on continuance of the war)

38.     1865, 13th Amendment passed

39.     1865, Appomattox (significance)

40.     1865, Lincoln assassinated; President Andrew Johnson (who is he?)

Tip: For the next events, use the instructor’s link in Lesson 4.

41.     Actions when a slave became a freedman

·         First action, seek separated family members

·         Later action, form schools for their children and churches

42.     1865, South’s action – Black codes (state codes)

43.     1865, 13th amendment ratified by the states

44.     1866, to stop Black codes, 1st Civil Rights Act, 2nd as 14th Amendment – major parts – States, not just Congress, could not violate “due process”; citizenship defined

45.     1866, South’s action – race riots in Memphis, New Orleans

46.     1866, Klu Klux Klan starts

47.     1866 (a mid-term election), Northern response by voters is great anger against the South

48.     Military Reconstruction Act

49.     1868, 15th Amendment proposed

50.     1668, impeachment of Andrew Johnson1868, Election – US Grant – “waving the bloody shirt” campaign

51.     1870, Attacks on African American voters (notice black males are voting), Grant’s response

52.     1870, KKK again but this time stopped by KKK Act

53.     1872- scandals in the Grant administration

54.     1873, Panic of and unemployment

55.     Throughout this period, in the South for poor white and blacks both rise of sharecropping and tenant farming and the crop-lien system

56.     1876, Election - Republican Hayes had fewer popular votes; Democrat Tilden had more. disputes over the electoral results in 4 states

57.     Compromise of 1877 (what does it do? What does the South get for the Democrats not fighting over the electoral college results?)