Unit 3: Transforming the Nation–1830s to 1877 (Lessons 1-4)

Study Guide

The Objective Exam will consist primarily of multiple choice questions. The total value is 100 points. There are 25 questions each at 4 points. Reminder: This Unit consists of Lessons 1-4. The word Lessons refers to Blackboard learning modules. Blackboard learning modules have a Table of Contents on the left that let you see all of the resources available so you can click on the one you want. All Lessons have links from your instructor and sometimes additional resources such as maps and Learning Quizzes. Note:

·         8 of the 25 questions come from these Learning Quizzes for this Unit (and those concepts in the Learning Quizzes help you understand the other content in the Unit)

·         17 of them come from below.  


The 5 Ws rule is a good guide to understanding the items below: you should know Who, What, When, Where, and Why—and sometimes How. The Instructor’s links provide visuals, frequently in tables, to help you compare facts to see similarities and differences.
If you need more than is in the Lessons on any specific issue listed here, just ask. This Guide has more detail than others. Let me know if it helps.

Tip: For the next events, use the instructor’s link in Lesson 1.

1.        North and South compared – commerce, agriculture, labor, banking, urban areas (cities), immigration to, transportation, technology, (the same traits from the past still apply)t

2.        Development of South’s characteristics from the 1830s

·         “peculiar institution”

·         Slavery as a “positive good” (earlier view as a “necessary evil”)

·         Views, anti-city, pro-agrarian, pro-white

·         Dominance of planters in (although a minority)

·         Slavery and cotton, main international markets with Britain and France, dependence on cotton gin as only technology

3.        Sojourner Truth, African American, former slave, abolitionist, speaker for women’s rights

4.        Rebellions by slaves or free blacks with the most famous perhaps being Denmark Vesey and Nat Turner.

5.        American Colonization Society, an early movement in both North and South to deal with slavery by paying the master and returning freed slaves to Liberia in Africa

6.        North’s characteristics from the 1830s

·         Varied general reform movements (examples in 7.)

·         Against slavery: American Anti-Slavery Society, a small movement for immediate abolition of slavery, and

·         William Lloyd Garrison (newspaper The Liberator)

·         Frederick Douglass, African American, former slave, abolitionist (newspaper The North Star)

·         Against slavery: Underground railroad

7.        Examples of the North’s varied general reform movements

·         Horace Mann, public education, literacy, and voting

·         Insane asylums and prisons and Dorothea Dix

·         Second Great Awakening

·         Suffrage and Susan B. Anthony

·         Temperance

·         Transcendentalism Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau (also the author of Civil Disobedience”

·         Utopian communes (such as Shakers)

Tip: For the next events, use the instructor’s link in Lesson 2.

8.        Free Soil movement (West and North) and political party to stop expansion of slavery to the territories

9.        “manifest destiny” and John L. O’Sullivan

10.     Westward expansion - consequences on Native Americans

11.     1844 Election of James Knox Polk with a platform of annexation of Texas (happens) and taking British territory to expand Oregon (does not happen)

12.     Mexican War, starts with a Texas/Mexico boundary dispute

13.     Wilmont Proviso (proviso = a condition)

14.     Mexican War, territory gained

15.     1849 California Gold Rush

16.     California’s request for admission as a free state

17.     Compromise of 1850

18.     Fugitive Slave Act – part that offended most Northerners

19.     Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin

20.     Gadsden Purchase of 1853 and the South’s desired railroad route

21.     Popular sovereignty (dangers of) and the Kansas Nebraska Act and the North’s desired railroad route

22.     “Bleeding Kansas” (with majority of Kansans being pro-free-state)

23.     John Brown in Kansas

24.     Preston Brooks’ attack on Senator Charles Sumner

25.     Split in the Democratic party and Rise of Republican Party and of Abraham Lincoln, a moderate

26.     John Brown at Harper’s Ferry

27.     Lincoln’s positon on slavery (Don’t assume!) in the Lincoln-Douglas Debates, in the 1st Inaugural Address, and when the South 1st seceded

28.     1860-1861, month of Lincoln’s election and month of his taking office

29.     Secession crisis, South Carolina firing on a federal fort, Fort Sumter, (before Lincoln takes office)

30.     Confederacy (meaning of word) formed, Jefferson Davis elected

Tip: For the next events, use the instructor’s link in Lesson 3 (.

31.     Initial goals of the Confederacy and the North

32.     Northern purposes for the blockade of the South

33.     Northern and Southern strengths and weaknesses for war (the same traits from the past still apply)- commerce, agriculture, labor, banking, urban areas (cities), immigration to, transportation, technology, literacy or lack of it, communication, government infrastructure

34.     Northern and Southern strengths and weakness for financing the war (for collecting taxes, buying needed things, paying soldiers and other employees, paying for purchases)

35.     Legal Tender Act– greenback in the North; inflation in South

36.     Legislation passed while the South was out of the Union: protective tariffs, National Banking Act, Homestead Act, Morrill Land Grant Act, transcontinental railroad – These set the stage for the new North.

37.     Draft, North and South

38.     1862, Antietam (significance) and stating the proclamation to come

39.     1863, Emancipation Proclamation (limitations on where it applied)

40.     Contraband of war – the meaning

41.     Medicine and nursing (female) and the Civil War – Example: Clara Barton (Her experience later leads her to form the Red Cross).

42.     1863, Gettysburg (significance)

43.     1863, Vicksburg (significance)

44.     1864, Sherman’s March to the Sea (significance)

45.     1864, Election of 1864 (significance on continuance of the war)

46.     1865, 13th Amendment passed

47.     1865, Appomattox (significance)

48.     1865, Lincoln assassinated; President Andrew Johnson (who is he?)

49.     Northern and Southern strengths and weakness at the end of the war

Continues on the next page


Begins on the prior page

Tip: For the next events, use the instructor’s link in Lesson 4.

50.     Actions when a slave became a freedman

·         First action, seek separated family members

·         Later action, form schools for their children and churches

51.     1865, South’s action – Black codes (state codes)

52.     1865, 13th amendment ratified by the states

53.     1866, to stop Black codes, 1st Civil Rights Act, 2nd as 14th Amendment – major parts – States, not just Congress, could not violate “due process”; citizenship defined

54.     1866, South’s action – race riots in Memphis, New Orleans

55.     1866, Klu Klux Klan starts

56.     1866 (a mid-term election), Northern response by voters is great anger against the South

57.     Military Reconstruction Act

58.     1868, 15th Amendment proposed

59.     1668, impeachment of Andrew Johnson

60.     1868, Election – US Grant – “waving the bloody shirt” campaign

61.     1870, Attacks on African American voters (notice black males are voting), Grant’s response

62.     1870, KKK again but this time stopped by KKK Act

63.     1872- scandals in the Grant administration

64.     1873, Panic of and unemployment

65.     Throughout this period, in the South for poor white and blacks both rise of sharecropping and tenant farming and the crop-lien system

66.     1876, Election
Republican Hayes had fewer popular votes
Democrat Tilden had more popular votes
Disputes over the electoral results in 4 states

67.     Compromise of 1877 (what does it do? What does the South get for the Democrats not fighting over the electoral college results?)

68.     What’s the legacy of the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments? Consider these examples: Having those amendments to the Constitution  means the NAACP can sue in the decades to come. Those doors that will eventually open for African Americans will eventually open for women and others.