Concepts for Unit 1

Reminder: there are definitions at the bottom of the searchable Constitution provided in your course.

Government in General

·         State

§  Governor

§  Assembly or legislature

·         National/federal

§  President (executive branch)

§  Congress (legislative branch)
- House of Representatives
- Senate

·         Judiciary/courts (judiciary branch)

§  Supreme Court and the Constitution

§  federal courts

§  state courts

·         Commission – new form, both executive and legislative

Constitution and State Laws on Voting

·         Vote for representatives - who decides qualifications to vote (unless the qualification is in the Constitution or its amendments)

·         Vote by representatives – what decides how many or Senators or Representatives (the law writers)?

·         Vote by electors in the electoral college

·         Vote by the people or blocking it

·         15th amendment

·         Poll tax

·         Grandfather clause

·         residency

Constitution and State Laws and Individual Rights

·         13th Amendment

·         “due process” clause in 5th amendment

·         “due process” clause in 14th amendment

·         14th Amendment

·         Public accommodations

·         Segregation, legal and the Supreme Court

Constitution and civil rights

·         assemble “peaceably,” freedom to

·         speech, freedom of

·         the press, freedom of

·         petition, freedom of

·         jury, trial by

Types of legal documents

·         bill of rights

·         code

·         Constitution

·         law


Types/parts of legal documents

·         amendment

·         article

Tension and Political Beliefs


·         Socialism

·         Anarchist – bombs

·         Assassination

·         German immigrants


Tension, New Immigrants (SE  Europe and Russia), and Religious Beliefs

·         Roman Catholic

·         Jews

·         Nativism, nativist

Tensions and Race

§  Lynching

§  Rioting

§  Racism (Not just African Americans, but immigrants identified as races)

Economic Terms on Monetary Policy an Debtors/Creditors

·         “sound” money – Gold Standard

·         debtor/creditor differences on monetary policy

·         debt

§  In South – crop-lien

§  In Plains – mortgage

Economic Terms On Taxes an Tariffs an Regional Differences

·         Tax

·         Tariff, different purposes

§  Revenue

§  Protective

·         Regional and trade difference in response to protective tariff

Panics (meaning of the word)

Sudden changes:

·         Insufficient markets for goods

·         Tightening of credit


Business Response to Workers

·         Layoffs

·         Wage reductions

Economic Terms in Gilded Age

·         Monopoly - government (state) as the source of legal devices

§  Incorporation (limited liability)

§  Holding company

§  Trust

·         Capital

·         Capitalism

§  Industrial

§  Financial

·         Commodities

·         Tip: Competition/market-driven

§  Capitalism favors

§  Monopoly avoids

Labor in Gilded Age

·         Artisan or craftsman

·         Skilled labor

·         Unskilled laborer

·         Piece worker


Death rate as a laborer:

·         Varied with industry

·         Varied if skilled/unskilled labor


Worker organizations:

·         Industrial union

·         Trade unions

·         Federation of unions


Methods by Business

·         Firing grievance committee

·         Strikebreaker or scab

·         Lockout

·         Factory as fortress and armory

·         Pinkertons, state militia, police

·         Injunction

·         Bribery of government

·         Lobbying of government

·         Modern term – revolving door


Methods by Labor

·         Boycott

·         Strike

Company Towns and Labor

Labor in pays the employer for:

·         Rent of a tenement

·         Food

Company Towns and Employer

Employer controls a) who has work, what they are paid, b) all buildings including price of tenements,  c) all political organization, d) administration of the town (no voting for local officials of a town) (Examples: 584-585

Copyright C. J. Bibus, Ed.D. 2003-2017


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