Concepts for Unit 1 - * asterisk will mean on the test.

Reminder: there are definitions at the bottom of the searchable Constitution provided in your course. For the written question, you write in ink on a piece of paper I provide. You will have a choice of giving examples from history for this Unit for 2 concept words on your test (10 points) or writing briefly about a how-it-works question (30 points) shown for your exam. The possible how-it-works questions that may be on your exam are:

1.       How did segregation work

2.       How did the gold standard work (cover both debtors and creditors)

3.       How did the protective tariff work (cover manufacturers and farmers and at least one other group experiencing the consequences of a protective tariff)

4.       How did monopoly work (include how it blocked competitors and what were the sources of its power)


Economic terms:

·         *Monopoly

·         Legal devices for monopoly from government

o   Holding company

o   *Trust (greater rights of trustees—such as guardians of widows and orphans)

·         Incorporation from state and, with it, limited liability

·         Capital

·         Capitalism

o   *Industrial

o   *Financial

·         Commodities

·         Competition/market-driven

o   Capitalism favors

o   Monopoly avoids



·         Artisan or craftsman

·         Skilled labor


·         Unskilled laborer

·         Piece worker


Death rate as a laborer:

·         Varied with industry

·         Varied if skilled/unskilled labor


Worker organizations:

·         *Industrial union

·         *Trade unions

·         Federation of unions


Methods from labor:

·         Boycott

·         *Strike

Methods from business

·         Firing grievance committee

·         Strikebreaker or scab

·         Lockout

·         Building modifications (factory as fortress and armory)

·         *Pinkertons

·         *Injunction

·         *State militia

·         Police


·         Bribery of government

·         Lobbying of government




Tensions, trends, and public fears and violence:

·         *Anarchism

·         *Socialism


·         Violence

·         Lynching

·         Rioting

·         Anarchist – bombs

·         Assassination


·         *Nativism, nativist

·         Immigrants

·         *Racism


·         State

o   Governor

o   Assembly or legislature

·         National/federal

o   *President (executive branch)

o   Congress (legislative branch)
- *House of Representatives
- *Senate

·         Judiciary/courts (judiciary branch)

o   *Supreme Court and the Constitution

o   federal courts

o    state courts


·         *Commission – new form, both executive and legislative

*Company Towns:

Labor in company town pays the employer for:

·         Rent of a tenement

·         Food


Employer also controls:

·         Administration of the town (no voting for local officials of a town)

·         All buildings

·         All political organization

(See pages 584-585)

Economic terms on monetary policy and debtors/creditors:

·         *“sound” money – Gold Standard

·         *debtor/creditor differences on monetary policy

·         debt

o    in South – *crop-lien

o   In Plains – *mortgage

Panics (meaning of that word?) and business response:

·         Layoffs

·         Wage reductions


Immigrant groups

·         Roman Catholic

·         Protestants, varied

·         Jews


·         Immigrants from South and South eastern Europe and from Russia

Economic terms on taxes and tariffs and regional differences

·         *Tax

·         *Tariff, different purposes

o   Revenue

o   *Protective

·         Regional and trade difference in response to protective tariff

Constitution and civil rights:

·         assemble “peaceably,” freedom to

·         speech, freedom of

·         the press, freedom of

·         petition, freedom of

·         jury, trial by

Types/parts of legal documents:

·         *amendment

·         article

·         *bill of rights

·         *code

·         *Constitution

·         *law


Constitution and state laws on voting:

·         *Vote for representatives - who decides qualifications to vote (unless the qualification is in the Constitution or its amendments)

·         Vote by representatives in a legislature to determine laws (including taxes) – what decides how many Representatives or Senators?

·         Vote by electors in the electoral college

·         15th amendment


·         Poll tax

·         Grandfather clause

·         residency

Constitution and state laws and the individual:

·         13th Amendment

·         “due process” clause in 5th amendment

·         *“due process” clause in 14th amendment

·         14th Amendment

·         *Public accommodations

·         *Segregation, legal and the Supreme Court





Copyright C. J. Bibus, Ed.D. 2003-2016


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