Unit 1: Creating a New America from 1860 to 1900 (Lessons 1-4)

Study Guide

The Unit Exam consists primarily of multiple choice questions in sets with different possible questions. The total value is 100 points. There are 25 questions in sets each at 4 points:

·         8 of the 25 questions come from the Learning Quizzes (and those concepts in the Learning Quizzes help you understand the content in the Unit)

·         17 of them come from below.  


The 5 Ws rule is a good guide to understanding the items below: you should know Who, What, When, Where, and Why—and sometimes How.


The Instructor’s Lessons provide visuals, frequently in tables, to help you compare facts to see similarities and differences.  Use the Learning Quizzes listed before you use the Lesson.

Key background on the Gilded Age—and the future

1.        13th amendment

2.        Defeat of the South, but Andrew Johnson

3.        Southern black codes and race riots

4.        Reconstruction

5.        14th amendment

·         “due process” and states

·         citizenship - and why necessary

6.        15th amendment

7.        Election of 1876, Compromise of 1877, and troops


Lesson 1 –Use its 3 Learning Quizzes 1st

Gilded Age (meaning of the term)

8.        Republican Party, policy pre-Civil War/post-secession

9.        Technology 1877-1887 (mainly for new industries) tenements,  about new industries

10.     Child labor, urban growth, electricity and consequences on industry and cities, , and immigration

11.     Prohibition (WCTU) – President Frances Willard (gender?)

12.     Republican party, early years of Gilded Age – pro-business, pro-protective tariff, lobbying of, bribing of, “sound money”

13.     Rise of Industrial Capitalism and:

·         Rockefeller and his industry

·         Carnegie and his industry

·         Horizontal integration / vertical integration

·         Monopoly, trust

14.     Rise of financial capitalism and J.P. Morgan

15.     North, workers in big business

·         Average work week/pay/living costs for laborers

·         Child labor – why?

·         Types of Unions
- Knights of Labor (industrial union attempt)
- American Federation of Labor (union of organized and skilled trade unions)

16.     South and West, farmers

·         Anti-protective tariff since sell in free market and buy in protected one (what’s the consequence?)

·         Traits, including differences in debt and crops

17.     South, farmers

·         Crop-lien system, results of

·         Traits of segregation in the South after 1880

18.     West, Native Americans including changes in west with the transcontinental railroad and--in 1887 – Dawes Severalty Act and subdividing their lands into small farms (of poor land) and selling the rest to whites.

19.     West, policies about Chinese, ban on immigration

20.     Segregation – shift in African American leaders

·         W. E. B. Du Bois – views, NAACP founder

·         B. T. Washington, views, statements at the Atlantic Compromise.

21.     Segregation – Supreme Court in the 1890s

·         Plessy v. Ferguson

·         Justice Harlan on that case

22.     Technology 1887-1893

23.     Movements:

·         Social Gospel

·         Charles Darwin and evolution

·         Herbert Spenser, Social Darwinism, “survival of the fittest”

24.     1890s  “new immigration” – their religions and , where they came from, and locations in Europe and the revival of nativism

25.     Gilded Age government (corporate-dominated, bribery, bossism in city government)

26.     Actions forced on Congress

·         Interstate Commerce Act

·         Pendleton Civil Service Act – and Garfield and spoils system

·         Sherman Anti-Trust Act

27.     Rise of the Populists, beginnings as Grangers and Granger laws and Farmers Alliance (in South and West), state laws about railroads

28.     Panic of 1893, Cleveland, and “sound money” versus silver

29.     The Elections of the 1890s

·         Republican Party, “sound money” as opposition to Populists

·         Election of 1892, regions and races supporting Populists

·         Election of 1892, success of Populists as a 3rd party

·         Election of 1896, Republicans’ methods (Mark Hanna), Democrats’ “dark horse” W.J. Bryan, and the Cross of Gold Speech

30.     Shifts to Colonies External to the Continental United States

·         Alfred Thayer Mahon, Influence of Sea Power

·         Alaska, Seward’s Folly, and later value

·         19th century imperialism and supports from prior movements like manifest destiny

·         Yellow journalism, Pulitzer and Hearst

31.     Hawaii. coup by Sanford Dole and proposed annexation
- and President Grover Cleveland
- and President William McKinley

32.     Cuba

·         Rough Riders

·         Cuba and Teller Amendment

·         Cuba and the Platt Amendment (and the future, Guantanamo)

33.     Territories gained from Spanish American War—and not gained

34.     Philippines

·         resistance to US

·         Philippines and Anti-Imperialist League

35.     China

·         Nationalism and Boxers

·         Open Door Policy and Secretary of State John Hayes