Unit 1: Creating a New America from 1860 to 1900 (Lessons 1-4)

Study Guide

The Objective Exam will consist primarily of multiple choice questions. The total value is 100 points. There are 25 questions each at 4 points. Reminder: Unit 1 consists of Lessons 1-4. The word Lessons refers to Blackboard learning modules. Blackboard learning modules have a Table of Contents on the left that let you see all of the resources available so you can click on the one you want. All Lessons have links from your instructor and sometimes additional resources such as maps and Learning Quizzes. Note:

·         8 of the 25 questions come from these Learning Quizzes (and those concepts in the Learning Quizzes help you understand the other content in the Unit)

·         17 of them come from below. (Questions are written so you do not have to prove that you know everything, but that you know something.)


The 5 Ws rule is a good guide to understanding the items below: you should know Who, What, When, Where, and Why—and sometimes How. The Instructor’s links provide visuals, frequently in tables, to help you compare facts to see similarities and differences.

Key background on the future

1.        13th amendment

2.        Defeat of the South, but Andrew Johnson

3.        Southern black codes and race riots

4.        “due process” and states
- 1st as Civil Right Act
- 2nd as 14th amendment

5.        Citizenship and the 14th amendment
- and why necessary

6.        Civil Rights Act of 1875

7.        Supreme Court on that case

8.        Troops and the election of 1876


Gilded Age

9.        General traits: Child labor, urban growth, electricity and consequences on industry and cities, , and immigration

10.     Republican party, early years of Gilded Age – pro-business, pro-protective tariff, lobbying of, bribing of, “sound money”

11.     Rise of Big Business and Industrial Capitalism

·         New technology examples

·         Rockefeller and his industry

·         Carnegie and his industry

·         Horizontal integration

·         Vertical integration

·         Trust

12.     Rise of financial capitalism and J.P. Morgan

13.     North, workers in big business

·         Average work week/pay/living costs for laborers

·         Types of Unions
- Knights of Labor (industrial union attempt)
- American Federation of Labor (union of organized and skilled trade unions)

14.     South and West, farmers

·         Anti-protective tariff since sell in free market and buy in protected one (what’s the consequence?)

·         Traits, including differences in debt and crops

15.     South, farmers

·         Crop-lien system, results of

·         Traits of segregation in the South after 1880

16.     West, Native Americans including changes in west with the transcontinental railroad and--in 1887 – Dawes Severalty Act and subdividing their lands into small farms (of poor land) and selling the rest to whites.

17.     West, policies about Chinese, ban on immigration

18.     Segregation – shift in African American leaders

·         W. E. B. Du Bois – views, NAACP founder

·         B. T. Washington, views, statements at the Atlantic Compromise.

19.     Segregation – Supreme Court in the 1890s

·         Plessy v. Ferguson

·         Justice Harlan on that case

20.     Urban life and new technology examples– tenements, diseases and the new field of Public Health,

21.     Social Gospel

22.     Charles Darwin and Social Darwinism (not Charles Darwin’s ideas)
- Herbert Spenser
- survival of the fittest

23.     1890s  “new immigration” – religions and locations in Europe and the revival of nativism

24.     Gilded Age government (corporate-dominated, bribery, bossism in city government)

25.     Actions forced on Congress

·         Interstate Commerce Act

·         Pendleton Civil Service Act – and Garfield and spoils system

·         Sherman Anti-Trust Act

26.     Rise of the Populists, beginnings as Grangers and Granger laws and Farmers Alliance (in South and West), state laws about railroads

27.     Panic of 1893, Cleveland, and “sound money” versus silver

28.     The Elections of the 1890s

·         Republican Party, “sound money” as opposition to Populists

·         Election of 1892, regions and races supporting Populists

·         Election of 1892, success of Populists as a 3rd party

·         Election of 1896, Republicans’ methods (Mark Hanna), Democrats’ “dark horse” W.J. Bryan, and the Cross of Gold Speech

29.     Shifts to Colonies External to the Continental United States

·         Alfred Thayer Mahon, Influence of Sea Power

·         Alaska, Seward’s Folly, and later value

·         19th century imperialism and supports from prior movements like manifest destiny

·         Yellow journalism, Pulitzer and Hearst

30.     Hawaii. coup by Sanford Dole and proposed annexation
- and President Grover Cleveland
- and President William McKinley

31.     Cuba

·         Rough Riders

·         Cuba and Teller Amendment

·         Cuba and the Platt Amendment (and the future, Guantanamo)

32.     Territories gained from Spanish American War—and not gained

33.     Philippines

·         resistance to US

·         Philippines and Anti-Imperialist League

34.     China

·         Nationalism and Boxers

·         Open Door Policy and Secretary of State John Hayes