Unit 2 Study Guide – a guide to preparation for all parts of the Unit Exam

Tips: What Helps Learning? from the FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)


If you have questions about any of this webpage, please ask. I will add more detail on the date in the Course Schedule and I will also expand these answers based on your questions. Tip: the password is at the bottom.


Table of Contents:

Temporary Link to the Possible Questions for the Written Part of the Exam

How to Use the Equivalent of Endnotes for the Unit 1 and 2 Written Parts of the Exams

Practical Issues That Students Frequently Want to Know about the Unit Objective and Written Exams

Specific Tips for Each Chapter

In Chapter 20:

In Chapter 21:

In Chapter 22:

In Chapter 23:

In Chapter 24:

The password


Temporary Link to the Possible Questions for the Written Part of the Exam

If someone posts in Students Helping Students with History for Unit 2 that he or she wants to see a link to possible questions for the Unit 2 Written Exam, I will place that link here.

A request was made and the link is here—as well as in the forum Students Helping Students with History.

How to Use the Equivalent of Endnotes for the Unit 1 and 2 Written Parts of the Exams

Two links that might help you are:

·         Why Endnotes Should Be a Lifetime Skill And a Before- and After-correction Student Example. – This would not have been possible without a kind student (one who can now do much stronger work). It also shows you the difference between:

o   The equivalent of endnotes used for a Unit Written Exam

o   Actual endnotes created with Microsoft Word for the Analysis of Primaries

·         General requirements for Unit Written Exams

Practical Issues That Students Frequently Want to Know about the Unit Objective and Written Exams

The content for Unit 2 covers Chapter 20 through Chapter 24.


With Unit 2, you do both an Objective and Written part of the Exam. Click here for information that is the same for all Unit Exams. This link covers:


Specific Tips for Each Chapter

Note: These issues are grouped by topics. They are not in the exact order of the textbook.

In Chapter 20:

1.    Notice the Progressive (urban, middle class, cities in all regions) that began with the Populists (rural, farmers, Midwest and South)

2.    Notice who is pointing out problems.

·         The muckrakers in this era—their names, topics, and fundamental belief that if the American people know what is actually going on they will act

·         Socialism as a new movement and how it was very different from European socialism

3.    Notice the reform groups:

·         Social gospel, one of the Christian movements, especially Washington Gladden (earlier) and Walter Rauschenbusch (in the Progressive Era)

·         Settlement house movement, especially Jane Addams

·         Women’s suffrage

·         Temperance

·         Child labor

4.    Examine the issues with “honest government”:

·         Voters with ways to create legislation

·         Voters with ways to remove elected officials before the next election

·         City reforms

·         State reforms – the laboratories of change

·         Amendments

·         Efficiency movement (This is also in industry with Taylorism.)

5.    Examine the differences  in the government (president, Congress, and court) during the administrations of Theodore Roosevelt, Howard Taft, and Woodrow Wilson on these types of issues:

·         Names (such as Square Deal or New Freedoms) associated with the presidency)

·         Dealing with regulation of big business and trusts

·         Dealing with workers in factories, child labor, farmers, women, and African Americans

·         New laws on

·   Preservation of natural resources and conservation (You can read examples in the primaries.)

·   Regulation of railroads and food and drugs

·   Banking – Federal Reserve System

·   Tariff and income tax (considered a reform at that time)

6.    Notice the famous strikes covered in this period (such as the 1902 coal strike) or disastrous labor events (such as the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire)


In Chapter 21:

1.    Notice the term the Great War—a period now called World War I

2.    Notice how the war started, how we are officially neutral, and how deadly this war is and why
Caution:  On page 749, the words
“Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy)” are incorrect and should be
Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria)
Note well: the text in the right margin is correct and the map on 750 is correct.

3.    Notice many difficult issues:

·         Entangling of loans by American bankers  to Great Britain and France and of sale of essential war materiel to them and of big profits.to some parts of the American economy

·         Submarine warfare is new and tradition said that those at war should “save crews and passengers” (page 754)—something possible with 2 fighting vessels visible at sea, but a submarine telling its enemy that it was there would lose its only advantage.

·         Zimmermann telegram (A.K.A. Zimmermann note)

·         Mobilization by national government power in ways we never had done before plus a new labor force during the war

·   Women

·   African Americans (including movement to the North in the Great Migration)

·   Latinos (including movement to barrios)

·         Rise of communism in Russia with the Bolshevik Revolution

·   Caution:  Russia had been one of the Allies along with France and Great Britain.

·         Suppression of free speech in ways we had never done before
Notice the Espionage and Sedition Act. You can read it in the Primaries.

4.    The American contribution to the war is late and small, but it is at a crucial time on the Western front.

5.    Notice the terms at the end of the war, what Wilson, and how he errs greatly in not including the Senate (especially Henry Cabot Lodge) since the Senate had to ratify the treaty per the U.S. Constitution.

6.    Stare at the map on 771. The new nations subdivided out of the former empires of Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire (only partly on that map) combined with the war guilt clause tell you not just events then but where World War II will begin.

7.    Notice the Spanish flu, the word pandemic, and the death rates that make this a world-wide epidemic.
Tip: I do not find this stated (and if you see it, please tell me where) but my understanding is this an avian flu—and birds go where they want and across national borders. Over the last decades we have dealt with the fears of avian flu and news reports covered how nations were digging up bodies from this pandemic to try to find how to prevent this kind of disease.

8.    Notice the uneasy peace and the numbers of changes:

·         Suffrage

·         20% of work force on strike because of rising prices and fears because of the Russian Revolution

·         The Red Summer of bloody attacks on African Americans

·         The 1st Red Scare of attacks on immigrants and alleged communists. Read this with care.

In Chapter 22:

1.    Notice the rise of consumerism that has come out of the end of the Progressive Era.

·         Dependent for new sales on marketing and advertising
and thus a connection with the new technology of radios and advertising paying for the programs on what became national networks (NBC and CBS)

·         Dependent on workers’ being able to earn enough to buy (something coming out of Henry Ford’s actions and model)

·         Dependent on efficiencies that made prices low enough the workers could buy

·         Watch for the disaster coming as market saturation will occur and each of the above will fall away.

2.    Notice new technologies – airplanes and the car culture and the oil fields and the gas stations and the slow beginning of national highway standards

3.    Notice new popularity of spectator sports including baseball and football and boxing

4.    Notice the “lost generation” and “jazz” and the color of jazz

5.    Notice the changes in thinking including:

·         Freud

·         Einstein

·         Modernism in multiple areas including art and literature

6.    Notice the changes in groups:

·         The so-called New Woman (A.K.A. flappers)

·         African Americans and the Harlem Renaissance and Garveyism and the NAACP

7.    Notice pushback by:

·         Nativism and immigration law

·         The KKK -See the primaries for examples.

·         Fundamentalism, including the Scopes Trial

·         Prohibition

·         The Republican Party in the 1920 election—a “return to normalcy”

8.    Warren G. Harding administration

·         Andrew Mellon – pro-big money and his income tax policies

·         Reduced regulation—although less repressive about race than Wilson

·         Disarmament

·         Scandals—Teapot Dome

·         Early death

9.    Calvin Coolidge administration and re-election in 1924 – “The chief business of the American people is business.”
Note: he decides not to run in 1928.

10. Herbert Hoover as the candidate in 1928

·         Background

·   Theme of “voluntarism” and trade associations to create standards

·   Had been Secretary of Commerce—establish the Federal Radio Commission
Note: not covered in this textbook that I can find, but that commission is associated with requiring that radio stations using the public’s airwaves must act in the public interest

In Chapter 23:

1.    Notice the causes of the Great Depression—a worldwide destruction.

·         Stock market, margin buying, not required to disclose reality of the corporation, banks able to lend depositors’ savings for gambling in the stock market

·         Market saturation by 1927 – steel, homes, cars – consumer buying down

·         Speculative bubble bursts as stock market falls

·         Declining prices – Highly recommended to use the primaries on farming and life in the Great Depression. They are oral.

2.    Human consequences

·         By 1932, 25% out of work – homeless, hungry, relief (charity for essential survival) running out of money, people stopping courts from foreclosing on property (think of Shays’s rebellion)

·         Worse for working women

·         Worse for minorities – African Americans (layoffs), Mexicans (forced deportation of them and their children), Asians (loss of farm labor jobs)

·         Worse for regions hit by dust bowl

·         Worse for farmers – Farmers Holiday Association

·         Worse for vets – Bonus March

3.    Government actions

·         Smoot-Hawley Tariff – negative consequence

·         Federal Reserve actions – negative consequence(Note: the Fed in the 2008 crisis tried a different approach.)

·         Tax increases

·         Reconstruction Finance Corporation – loans for banks, insurance companies, railroads (needed but …), but not for people

·         Relief money (charity for essential survival) to states for construction projects

4.    Election of FDR and inauguration in March (last time this late date since an amendment to the Constitution had made inauguration in January).

5.    100 days – First New Deal

·         Banks – national bank holiday, Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation

·         Wall Street – Securities and Exchange Change Commission

·         Ending of Prohibition (amendment ratified at the end of 1933).

·         Unemployed – 1st FERA, then CWA, CCC (for conservation and for young men)

·         Industry – NRA

·         Farming – AAA

·         Impoverished and attacked groups- Latinos, African Americans (Scottsboro boys), Native Americans

·         Impoverished regions – TVA

6.    Critics from left and right and the move to the Second New Deal

·         Huey Long

·         Francis Townsend

·         Father Charles E. Coughlin

·         Supreme Court itself

7.    Second New Deal

·         Unemployed – WPA

·         Labor – Wagner Act plus General Motors “sit-down” strike in 1937  (This 1937 strike is by an industrial union—one made up of both skilled and unskilled workers. Tip: in the index, try the United Automobile Workers.)

·         Aged and disabled – Social Security Act

·         Taxing the rich

·         Court-packing plan


Tip: Question about the New Deal? Chronological study guide with footnotes for details if needed.

Caution: Do not assume that laws meant to prevent problems that led to the Great Depression still exist.

·         Tools to help you see the crisis on a single page and to see the connection between each problem in the crisis and each policy in the New Deal:

-       The table of problems without the New Deal Solutions – Try to complete the right side of the chart on your own before you look at the answers.

-       The table of problems with the New Deal SolutionsThe rows tell you when the laws were removed.


In Chapter 24:

1.    Notice the basics of fascism, the term, the devices, the nations following it, the racism, and its tools (including a totalitarian police force)

2.    Notice the moves in the 1930s and early 1940s

·         Asia – Manchuria

·         Europe - Munich and Czechoslovakia and later Austria

·         Europe - Poland (and the clever deal with Stalin, a Communist who was therefore the enemy of the fascists)

·         Europe – blitzkrieg and France
Great Britain now stands alone.

3.    US and the events

·         1930s – Isolation,, Neutrality Acts

·         Lend-Lease

·         Atlantic Charter

·         But Axis now combines Germany, Italy, and Japan
and in December 1941 – Pearl Harbor

4.    US and production miracle

·         Rationing –think about why a democracy/republic would do that

·         Improving conditions for working women

·         Racial conflicts with African Americans

·         Racial changes with Mexicans and Mexican Americans – Zoot suit attacks and the bracero program

·         War activities of Native Americans

·         “War relocation camps” and Japanese and Japanese Americans

5.    Campaigns

·         Africa campaign

·         U-boats and Atlantic

·         Italian campaign

·         D-day, Normandy, and Ike – See the primaries for this chapter.

6.    Realities

·         Yalta

·         Death of Roosevelt

·         Concentration camps of the Holocaust

·         Pacific – Bataan March, Guadalcanal (1st defeat for Japanese), leapfrogging strategy, nuclear bombs on two Japanese cities

·         Domestic – American workers with better opportunities for prosperity

The password

You may take exams only 1 time; therefore, the password is

onetimeonly – no spaces and no capital letters.




Copyright C. J. Bibus, Ed.D. 2003-2016


WCJC Department:

History – Dr. Bibus

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