Unit 2: Moving to the World Stage-America from 1900 to 1945 (Lessons 1-4) Study Guide

This is an attempt to make things easier for students than moving to links in the Lessons.


The Exam is worth 100 points. There are 25 questions each at 4 points. Reminder: Unit 1 Exam consists of Lessons 1-4. Note:

·          8 of the 25 questions come from Learning Quizzes—especially Learning Quiz 3 on fascism and communism plus quotations from major figures you should know

·          17 come from below. (Questions are written so you do not have to prove that you know everything, but that you know something.)


This Unit Exam focuses on how things change on major issues during the period, such as foreign policy, other nations, women, and other groups.


1.        Progressive Era Presidents  (Lesson 1) Chronology

·          Theodore Roosevelt/TR (Rep.) 1901-1904, 1904-1908

·          William Howard Taft (Rep) 1908-1912

·          W. Wilson (Dem), 1912-1916, 1916-1920

2.        Progressive Era foreign policy (Pages from Unit 1 465-471.)

·          T. Roosevelt–Panama Canal, Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine (background on sovereign debt)

·          W.H. Taft–Dollar Diplomacy in Asia & Latin America

·          W. Wilson–Intervention in Mexico (Tampico/Pancho Villa)

3.        Caution: Progressivism begins in the Gilded Age--Social Gospel,  Interstate Commerce Commission, voluntary associations

4.        Caution: Beginning of new movements still in US

·          Efficiency movement, “scientific management“ or Taylorism

·          Experts, increasing reliance on, especially in commissions

·          Consumerism, buying as virtue, as way to control business

5.        Progressive reforms & reformers- Government

·          City– commission (group of experts), city manager

·          State–“laboratories of change,” Bob LaFollette; examples

·          Federal–increasing use of commissions (names vary)

·          Constitution–Populist-proposed, Progressive-passed, 1913 16th (income tax) & 17th (direct election, Senators)

6.        Progressive reforms & reformers–Free Press

·          McClure’s Magazine, areas investigated

·          Muckrakers–Ida Tarbell , Upton Sinclair, Lincoln Stephens;

7.        Progressive domestic policy–T. Roosevelt (1901-1908)

·          Trust policy-Northern Securities case–“public interest”

·          Labor policy-Square Deal & the coal strike

·          3 Cs–conservation, corporation control, consumerism

·          Consumer Protections – FDA & Meat Inspection Act

8.        Progressive domestic policy–W.H. Taft (1908-1912), primarily on-going political fights with TR; split in the Rep party]

9.        4 way split in 1912–TR, Taft, Wilson, & E.V. Debs (Socialist)

10.     Progressive domestic policy–Woodrow Wilson (New Freedom):

·          Trust policy–Federal Trade Commission

·          Bank policy-Federal Reserve & currency

·          Tariff–lowered; income tax, later as amendment

11.     Progressive era & groups (not the 2nd Wilson administration)

·          Caution: increased anti-immigrant, anti-African American

·          African Americans

-          TR & B.T. Washington; then Southern outrage

-          W. Wilson, 1st time segregation in DC federal jobs

·          Factories-increasing mechanization since Henry Ford’s assembly line but increased pay ($5 a day men)

·          Unions-under increasing pressure

·          Women-labor plus Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, 1911, NY City

·          Women-suffragettes (DC parade)

12.     1914- Outbreak of the Great War in Europe (Lesson 2) Chronology

·          Allies–Great Britain, France, Russia

·          Central Powers-Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire

13.     War traits & tech - trench warfare, submarine warfare, convoys; flame throwers, land/sea mines, tanks, submarines, poison gas

14.     US & the war

·          Entry into the war in 1917 (Zimmerman Note or Telegram)




14 Continued

·          Wilson’s major proclaimed goals

-          League of Nations  (Nation not joining –the US)

-          Self-determination of nations (Look at the maps.)

·          Draft; control of agriculture, industry, railroads & speech

15.     American entry at crucial time for food supplies, for soldiers

16.     1917 Czar Nicholas, Nicholai Lenin. Bolshevik/Russian Revolution

17.     Treaty of Versailles (not signed by US; Senate rejects)

·          War guilt clause forced on Germany

·          Reparations forced on Germany plus British/French debt

18.     World War I & groups (2nd Wilson administration) Snapshot

·          African Americans-Great Migration (& Steel strike 1919)

·          Farmers- some increased income with the War

·          Racists-Birth of a Nation, slow rebirth of the Klu Klux Klan

·          Temperance-the 18th Amendment

·          Unions- decline except for the American Federation of Labor

·          Women-support for war & therefore 19th amendment

19.     1920s Presidents (Also called the Jazz Age) Chronology

·          Warren G. Harding (Rep), 1920-1923 - Most known for “normalcy” & corruption (not public until after his death)

·          Calvin Coolidge (Rep), 1923-1924, 1924-1928 –Most known for tax reduction for wealthy; response to debt-reparations cycle, vetoing a farm bill & the Bonus Bill

20.     Post- War traits (1919-1921): isolationism, inflation, racial hostilities, strikes (industrial union), unemployment, bombings.

21.     Trends in the 1920s–wage gap rich & poor; productivity up, but not wages; market saturation (more products than consumers); decline in unionization, stock market/buying on margin

22.     The 1920s & groups Snapshot

·          African Americans-Harlem Renaissance

·          Division in America-Red Scare, Scopes Trial, Sigmund Freud

·          Farmers-1/2 of income; 1929, Farmers’ Holiday Association

·          Immigrants-Sacco & Vanzetti Trial; 1924 Immigration law

·          Racists- Klu Klux Klan growth to 4+ million (DC parade)

·          Unions-in decline

·          Women-flappers

·          Youth-adolescence; rise of high school/start of junior college

23.     The 1920s & Europe- Fascism (Germany, Italy, Japan); Communism (USSR, later China); youth (Lesson 3 + Learning Quiz)

24.     1930s (Great Depression) Presidents & Major Issues

·          Herbert Hoover (Rep), 1928-1932, March Chronology—Most known for “volunteerism” & response to “crash” & debt-reparations cycle & Bonus March; shift from “volunteerism” to Reconstruction Finance Corporation (but not for people)

25% unemployed, business stopped, teachers not paid, houses foreclosed, banks closed

·          Franklin D. Roosevelt/FDR (Dem) 1932-1936, 1936-1940, 1940-1944, 1944-1945- Chronology

-          Chart: Causes of Great Depression & New Deal response

-          March 1933-1st 100 days-National bank holiday, CCC (youth), commissions (SEC, FDIC; PWA, WPA, AAA)

-          1936 shift-Social Security Act, Fair Labor Standards Act
(Note: Father Coughlin, F. Townsend, Huey Long)

25.     1930s (Great Depression) foreign policy Presidents Hoover & FDR Good Neighbor Policy; Hoover, non-recognition of aggression


Continues on next page




26.     1939-Outbreak of World War II

·          Allies-Great Britain (Churchill), France (conquered early with part the puppet Vichy government), and others later

·          Axis-Germany (Hitler), Italy (Mussolini), Japan (Emperor Hirohito), all Fascists and USSR (Stalin), Communist

27.     War traits & tech: blitzkrieg, sonar, radar, firebombing, atomic bomb

28.     WWII until US war declaration Chronology Through Truman

·          Europe: N. Chamberlain/Sudetenland/Munich appeasement

·          Europe: War declared, Poland/Germany/Russia (USSR)

·          US: initial isolationism (Destroyers for Bases; Lend-Lease) but shifts to “arsenal of democracy”

29.     1941, June after Hitler’s Battle of Britain fails in the West and he thinks he can beat Stalin on an Eastern Front

·          Allies-Great Britain, France, USSR

·          Axis-Germany, Italy, Japan

30.     World War II, early (1941-1943) 

·          Pearl Harbor– 12/7/1940 When the US enters the war

·          Bataan Death March

·          US internment of Japanese inland from US west coast

31.     World War II, late (1944-1945+) 

·          Pacific: Guadalcanal/leapfrogging campaign

·          Europe: Normandy/D.D. Eisenhower; Battle of the Bulge

·          Shift to Cold War

·          Death of FDR April, 1945; Harry Truman as President

·          1944-GI Bill –Why?

·          Atomic bomb on Hiroshima & Nagasaki and surrender of Japan

·          United Nations

32.     The pre-war and WWII and groups

·          African Americans- law & threat of a DC March; Tuskegee Airmen

·          Farmers-improve with AAA and WWII

·          Immigrants- Jews (Holocaust) and refugees across Europe

·          Racists- continuing but New Deal had law on employment

·          Unions-industrial unions rise, with the sit-down strikes, creating a new part of the middle class

·          Women-Rosie the Riveter