Unit 2: Moving to the World Stage-America from 1900 to 1945 (Lessons 1-4) Study Guide

This started this term an attempt to make things easier for on-campus students during and after lectures. I am providing it for you as an experiment to see if it helps you. 

Tips: In this Study Guide, press Ctrl-F and type the word farm (or Tech or any other word here) and you will see all of the times the word is use. Also, you can use Ctrl-F to search links provided here. If you still have a question, ask in Unit 2 Learning Discussion. For example, the textbook does not explain sovereign debt nor can I find information on race and Theodore Roosevelt. (It may be there, but I cannot find it yet.)


The Exam is worth 100 points. There are 25 questions each at 4 points. Reminder: Unit 1 Exam consists of Lessons 1-4. Note:


This Unit Exam focuses on how things change on major issues during the period, such as  , other nations, women, and other groups.


1.       Progressive Era Presidents  (Lesson 1) Chronology

·         Theodore Roosevelt/TR (Rep.) 1901-1904, 1904-1908

·         William Howard Taft (Rep) 1908-1912

·         W. Wilson (Dem), 1912-1916, 1916-1920

2.       Progressive Era foreign policy (Textbook pages: 465-471.)

·         T. Roosevelt–Panama Canal, Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine (background on sovereign debt)

·         W.H. Taft–Dollar Diplomacy in Asia & Latin America

·         W. Wilson–Intervention in Mexico (Tampico/Pancho Villa)

3.       Caution: Progressivism begins in the Gilded Age—Examples: Social Gospel,  Interstate Commerce Commission, voluntary associations

4.       Caution: Beginning of new movements still in US

·         Efficiency movement, “scientific management“ or Taylorism

·         Experts, increasing reliance on, especially in commissions

·         Consumerism, buying as virtue, as way to control business

5.       Progressive Era reforms & reformers- Government

·         City– commission (group of experts), city manager (expert)

·         State- examples: initiative, referendum

·         Federal–increasing use of commissions (names vary)

·         Constitution–Populist-proposed, Progressive-passed, 1913 16th (income tax) & 17th (direct election, Senators)

6.       Progressive Era reforms & reformers–Free Press

·         McClure’s Magazine, areas investigated

·         Muckrakers–Ida Tarbell , Upton Sinclair, Lincoln Stephens (notice their areas of investigation)

7.       Progressive Era domestic policy–T. Roosevelt (1901-1908)

·         Trust policy-Northern Securities case–“public interest”

·         Labor policy-Square Deal & the coal strike

·         3 Cs–conservation, corporation control, consumerism (page 482 in the textbook. I could not find it in the index)

·         Consumer Protections – FDA & Meat Inspection Act

8.       Progressive Era domestic policy–W.H. Taft (1908-1912), primarily on-going political fights with TR; split in the Rep party]

9.       4 way split in 1912–TR, Taft, Wilson, & E.V. Debs (Socialist)

10.    Progressive Era (domestic policy–Woodrow Wilson (New Freedom):

·         Trust policy–Federal Trade Commission

·         Bank policy-Federal Reserve & currency

·         Tariff–lowered; income tax, later as amendment

11.    Progressive Era & Groups (not the 2nd Wilson administration)

·         Caution: increased anti-immigrant, anti-African American

·         African Americans

-          TR & B.T. Washington meet; then Southern outrage

-          W. Wilson, 1st time segregation in DC federal jobs

·         Factories-increasing mechanization since Henry Ford’s assembly line but increased pay ($5 a day men)

·         Unions-under increasing pressure

·         Women-labor plus Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, 1911, NY City

·         Women-suffragettes (DC parade)



12.    1914- Outbreak of the Great War (World War I) in Europe (Lesson 2) Chronology Who Is on Each Side?

·         Allies–Great Britain, France, Russia

·         Central Powers-Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire

13.    War traits & tech - trench warfare, submarine warfare, convoys; flame throwers, land/sea mines, tanks, submarines, poison gas

14.   US & Entry into World War I

·         1917 (Zimmerman Note or Telegram)

·         Wilson’s major proclaimed goals

-          League of Nations  (Nation not joining –the US)

-          Self-determination of nations (Look at the maps.)

·         Draft; control of agriculture, industry, railroads & speech

15.    American entry at crucial time for food supplies, for soldiers

16.    1917 Czar Nicholas, Nicholai Lenin. Bolshevik/Russian Revolution

17.    1917 after US sides with the Allies and Russia surrenders to the Germans. Who Is on Each Side?

·         Allies–Great Britain, France, US (Russia is gone.)

·         Central Powers-Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire

18.    Treaty of Versailles (not signed by US; Senate rejects)

·         War guilt clause forced on Germany

·         Reparations forced on Germany plus British/French debt

19.    World War I & Groups (2nd Wilson administration) Snapshot

·         African Americans-Great Migration (& Steel strike 1919)

·         Farmers- some increased income with the War

·         Racists-Birth of a Nation, slow rebirth of the Klu Klux Klan

·         Temperance-the 18th Amendment

·         Unions- decline except for the American Federation of Labor

·         Women-support for war & therefore 19th amendment

20.    1920s Presidents (AKA the Twenties, the Jazz Age, and the Roaring Twenties) Chronology

·         Warren G. Harding (Rep), 1920-1923 - Most known for “normalcy” & corruption (not public until after his death)

·         Calvin Coolidge (Rep), 1923-1924, 1924-1928 –Most known for tax reduction for wealthy; response to debt-reparations cycle, vetoing a farm bill & the Bonus Bill

21.    Post- War traits (1919-1921): isolationism, inflation, racial hostilities, strikes (industrial union), unemployment, bombings.

22.    Trends in the 1920s–wage gap rich & poor; productivity up, but not wages; market saturation (more products than consumers); decline in unionization, stock market/buying on margin Snapshot

23.    The 1920s & Groups Snapshot

·         African Americans-Harlem Renaissance

·         Division in America-Red Scare, Scopes Trial, Sigmund Freud

·         Farmers-1/2 of income; 1929, Farmers’ Holiday Association

·         Immigrants-Sacco & Vanzetti Trial; 1924 Immigration law

·         Racists- Klu Klux Klan growth to 4+ million (DC parade)

·         Unions-in decline

·         Women-flappers

·         Youth-adolescence; rise of high school/start of junior college

24.    The 1920s & Europe- Fascism (Germany, Italy, Japan); Communism (USSR, later China); youth (Learning Quiz for Lesson 3. This is essential for questions on the exam.)

25.   1930s (Great Depression) Presidents & Major Issues

·         Herbert Hoover (Rep), 1928-1932, March Chronology—Most known for “volunteerism” & response to “crash” & debt-reparations cycle & Bonus March; shift from “volunteerism” to Reconstruction Finance Corporation (but not for people)

25% unemployed, business stopped, teachers not paid, houses foreclosed, banks closed

·         Franklin D. Roosevelt/FDR (Dem) 1932-1936, 1936-1940, 1940-1944, 1944-1945- Chronology from 1932 to 1939

-          Chart: Causes of Great Depression & New Deal response – This is essential to avoid wasted brain power. Its left column covers a crisis visible in Hoover’s administration; and to its right the solution by the New Deal

-          March 1933-1st 100 days-National bank holiday, CCC (youth), commissions (SEC, FDIC; PWA, WPA, AAA)

-          1936 shift-Social Security Act, Fair Labor Standards Act (both acts that are still law)
(Note: individuals who pushed the New Deal, especially on Social Security. Father Coughlin, an Anti-Semite; F. Townsend; Huey Long, a politician calling for redistribution of wealth)

26.    1930s (Great Depression) foreign policy Presidents Hoover & FDR Good Neighbor Policy; Hoover, non-recognition of aggression

27.    1939-Outbreak of World War II: Who Is on Each Side?

·         Allies-Great Britain (Churchill), France (conquered early with part the puppet Vichy government), and others later

·         Axis-Germany (Hitler), Italy (Mussolini), Japan (Emperor Hirohito), all Fascists and USSR (Stalin), Communist

28.    War traits & tech: blitzkrieg, sonar, radar, firebombing, atomic bomb

29.    World War II until US war declaration Chronology Through Truman and Shifts: Pre-US Entry, 1941-1943, 1944-1945

·         Europe: N. Chamberlain/Sudetenland/Munich appeasement

·         Europe: War declared, Poland/Germany/Russia (USSR)

·         US: initial isolationism (Destroyers for Bases; Lend-Lease) but shifts to “arsenal of democracy”

30.    1941, June after Hitler’s Battle of Britain fails in the West and he thinks he can beat Stalin on the Eastern Front. Who Is on Each Side?

·         Allies-Great Britain, France, USSR

·         Axis-Germany, Italy, Japan (USSR is gone.)

31.    World War II, early (1941-1943)  Shifts: Pre-US Entry, 1941-1943, 1944-1945

·         Pearl Harbor– 12/7/1940 When the US enters the war

·         Bataan Death March

·         US internment of Japanese inland from US west coast

32.    World War II, late (1944-1945+) Shifts: Pre-US Entry, 1941-1943, 1944-1945

·         Pacific: Guadalcanal/leapfrogging campaign

·         Europe: Normandy/D.D. Eisenhower; Battle of the Bulge

·         Shift to Cold War

·         Death of FDR April, 1945; Harry Truman as President

·         1944-GI Bill –Why?

·         Atomic bomb on Hiroshima & Nagasaki; with emperor’s encouragement, surrender of Japan

·         United Nations

33.   Pre-war and WWII & Groups

·         African Americans- law & threat of a DC March; Tuskegee Airmen

·         Farmers-improve with AAA and WWII

·         Immigrants- Jews (Holocaust), refugees across Europe

·         Racists- continuing but New Deal had law on employment

·         Unions-industrial unions rise, with the sit-down strikes, creating a new part of the middle class

·         Women-Rosie the Riveter

34.    And why racism in the United States became a foreign policy issue Shifts: Pre-US Entry, 1941-1943, 1944-1945