Unit 2: Moving to the World Stage-America from 1900 to 1945 (Lessons 1-4) Study Guide

Be sure to look at the link What Does It Mean That You Do Not Have to Know Everything. You are not being tested on every fact in the Study Guide. The facts in the Study Guide are more detailed to help you see the patterns. Tip: You must also recognize changes to groups in the Progressive Era, the 1920s, the Great Depression, or World War I and II.


The Unit Exam consists primarily of multiple choice questions in sets with different possible questions. The total value is 100 points. There are 25 questions in sets each at 4 points:

·        8 of the 25 questions come from Learning Quizzes (and concepts in Learning Quizzes help you understand content)

·        17 of them come from below.  


The 5 Ws rule is a good guide to understanding the items below: you should know Who, What, When, Where, and Why—and sometimes How. The Instructor’s Lessons provide visuals, frequently in tables, to help you compare facts to see similarities and differences.  Use the Learning Quizzes listed before you use the Lesson.


Use the 1st 3 Learning Quizzes throughout the Unit.

Lesson 1 --------------------------------------------------------

1.       Why the Progressive Era? Response to Gilded Age industrialization

·        By all levels of government:  city, state (initiative, referendum), federal (increasing use of commissions, but names vary)

·        In the Constitution–Populist-proposed, Progressive-passed, 1913 16th (income tax) & 17th (direct election, Senators)

·        By the Free Press & Muckrakers–McClure’s Magazine; Examples: Ida Tarbell (Standard Oil) , Upton Sinclair (meatpacking), Lincoln Stephens (city government)

2.       Progressive Era foreign policy

·        T. Roosevelt/TR (Rep.) 1901-1904, 1904-1908 - Panama Canal, Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine (background on sovereign debt)

·        W.H. Taft (Rep) 1908-1912–Dollar Diplomacy in Asia & Latin America

·        W. Wilson (Dem), 1912-1916, 1916-1920 – our Intervention in Mexico; Pancho Villa’s intervention in the US

3.       Progressive domestic policy (still exists)–Theodore Roosevelt

·        Trust policy-Northern Securities case–“public interest”

·        Labor policy-Square Deal & the coal strike

·        Consumer Protections – Example: FDA & Meat Inspection Act

4.       Progressive domestic policy–W.H. Taft (1908-1912), primarily on-going political fights with TR; split in the Rep party]

5.       4 way split in 1912–TR, Taft, Wilson, & E.V. Debs (Socialist)

6.       Progressive domestic policy (still exists)––Woodrow Wilson:

·        Trust policy–Federal Trade Commission

·        Bank policy-Federal Reserve & currency

·        Tariff–lowered; income tax, later as amendment

7.       Progressive era & groups forming and changing

·        Caution: increased anti-immigrant, anti-African American

·        W. Wilson, 1st time segregation in DC federal jobs

·        Factories-increasing mechanization since Henry Ford’s assembly line but increased pay ($5 a day men)

·        Women-suffragettes (DC parade)

Lesson 2 ----------------------------------------------------------
Tip: You must recognize which are traits of WWI and WWWII.

8.       1914- Outbreak of the Great War in Europe

·        Allies–Great Britain, France, Russia

·        Central Powers-Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire

9.       War traits & tech - trench warfare, submarine warfare (key for Germany), convoys; flame throwers, land/sea mines, tanks, submarines, poison gas

10.    US & the war

·        Entry into the war in 1917 (Zimmerman Note or Telegram)

·        Wilson’s major proclaimed goals

-         League of Nations  (Nation not joining –the US)

-         Self-determination of nations (Look at the maps.)

-         Freedom of seas (American shipping)

·        Draft; control of agriculture, industry, railroads & speech – increased federal power, agencies, and employees

11.    American entry at crucial time for food supplies, for soldiers

12.    1917 Czar Nicholas, Nicholai Lenin. Bolshevik/Russian Revolution

13.    Treaty of Versailles (not signed by US Senate/Henry Cabot Lodge)

·        War guilt clause forced on Germany

·        Reparations forced on Germany plus British/French debt

14.    World War I & groups (2nd Wilson administration)

·        African Americans-Great Migration- war jobs in the North

·        Farmers- some increased income with the War

·        Racists-Birth of a Nation, slow rebirth of the Klu Klux Klan

·        Temperance-the 18th Amendment

·        Unions- decline (especially industrial unions) except for the American Federation of Labor

·        Women-support for war & therefore 19th amendment

15.    1920s Presidents (Also called the Jazz Age/Roaring Twenties)

·        Warren G. Harding (Rep), 1920-1923 - Most known for “normalcy” & corruption (not public until after his death)

·        Calvin Coolidge (Rep), 1923-1924, 1924-1928 –Most known for tax reduction for wealthy; response to debt-reparations cycle, vetoing a farm bill & the Bonus Bill

16.    Post- War traits (1919-1921): isolationism, inflation, racial hostilities, strikes (industrial union), unemployment (and veterans), bombings.

17.    The 1920s & groups

·        African Americans-Harlem Renaissance (Examples: Zora Neale Hurston/Langston Hughes)

·        Farmers-1/2 of income; 1929, Farmers’ Holiday Association

·        Racists- Klu Klux Klan growth to 4+ million (DC parade)

·        Red Scare (the 1st-- another in the 1950s)

·        Scopes Monkey Trial (W.J. Bryan, Clarence Darrow)

·        Unions-in decline

·        Women-flappers

·        Youth-adolescence; rise of high school/start of junior college

18.    1920 trends in the 1920s/causes of Great Depression–wage gap rich & poor; productivity up, but not wages; market saturation (more products than consumers); decline in unionization, stock market/buying on margin

Continues below



Lesson 3 and Uses Its Learning Quiz--------------------------

19.    The 1920s & Europe- Capitalism; Fascism (Germany, Italy, Japan); Communism (USSR, later China); youth

20.    1930s (Great Depression) Presidents & Major Issues

·        Causes of the “Crash” and the Great Depression

·        Herbert Hoover (Rep), 1928-1932, March—Most known for response to “crash,” debt-reparations cycle, & Bonus March

·        25% unemployed, business stopped, teachers not paid, houses foreclosed, runs on the banks

·        Franklin D. Roosevelt/FDR (Dem) 1932-1936, 1936-1940, 1940-1944, 1944-1945

-         March 1933-1st 100 days-National bank holiday

-         Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)

-         Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)

-         Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)

-         Agriculture Adjustment Act (AAA)

-         1936 shift-Social Security Act, Fair Labor Standards Act
(Note: Father Coughlin, F. Townsend, Huey Long)

21.    1930s (Great Depression) foreign policy Presidents Hoover & FDR Good Neighbor Policy; Hoover, non-recognition of aggression

Lesson 4 ----------------------------------------------------------

Tip: You must recognize which are traits of WWI and WWII, and with WWII you must notice what occurs from about 1941-1943 and from 1944-1945 and beyond.

22.    1939-Outbreak of World War II

·        Allies-Great Britain (Churchill), France (conquered early with part the puppet Vichy government), and others later

·        Axis-Germany (Hitler), Italy (Mussolini), Japan (Emperor Hirohito), all Fascists and USSR (Stalin), Communist

23.    WWII until US war declaration

·        Europe: N. Chamberlain/Sudetenland/Munich appeasement

·        Europe: Poland invaded/split by Germany & USSR; war declared,

·        US: initial isolationism (Destroyers for Bases; Lend-Lease) but shifts to “arsenal of democracy”

24.    1941, June after Hitler’s Battle of Britain fails in the West, he thinks he can beat Stalin in the East so USSR changes sides

·        Allies-Great Britain, France, USSR

·        Axis-Germany, Italy, Japan

25.    World War II, early (1941-1943) 

·        Pearl Harbor– 12/7/1940 When the US enters the war

·        Bataan Death March

·        US internment of Japanese inland from US west coast

26.    World War II, late (1944-1945+) 

·        Pacific: Guadalcanal/leapfrogging campaign

·        Europe: Normandy/D.D. Eisenhower; Battle of the Bulge

·        Shift to Cold War

·        Death of FDR April, 1945; Harry Truman as President

·        1944-GI Bill –Why?

·        Atomic bomb on Hiroshima & Nagasaki

27.    The pre-war and WWII and groups

·        African Americans- law & threat DC March; Tuskegee Airmen

·        Farmers-improve with AAA and WWII

·        Immigrants- Jews (Holocaust) and refugees across Europe

·        Racists- continuing but New Deal had law on employment

·        Unions-industrial unions rise, with the sit-down strikes, creating a new part of the middle class

·        Women-Rosie the Riveter