Unit 2: Moving to the World Stage-America from 1900 to 1945 (Lessons 1-4)
Study Guide

The Objective Exam will consist primarily of multiple choice questions. The total value is 100 points. There are 25 questions each at 4 points. Reminder: Unit 1 consists of Lessons 1-4. The word Lessons refers to Blackboard learning modules. Blackboard learning modules have a Table of Contents on the left that let you see all of the resources available so you can click on the one you want. All Lessons have links from your instructor and sometimes additional resources such as maps and Learning Quizzes. Note:

·         8 of the 25 questions come from these Learning Quizzes (and those concepts in the Learning Quizzes help you understand the other content in the Unit)

·         17 of them come from below. (Questions are written so you do not have to prove that you know everything, but that you know something.)


The 5 Ws rule is a good guide to understanding the items below: you should know Who, What, When, Where, and Why—and sometimes How. The Instructor’s links provide visuals, frequently in tables, to help you compare facts to see similarities and differences. This Unit Exam focuses on how things change on major issues during the period, such as foreign policy, wars, domestic policy, African Americans, women, and other groups.



1.        Progressive Era Presidents  (Lesson 1)

·         Theodore Roosevelt/TR (Rep.), 1901-1904, 1904-1908

·         William Howard Taft (Rep) 1908-1912

·         W. Wilson (Dem), 1912-1916, 1916-1920

2.        Progressive Era foreign policy (Pages from Unit 1 465-471.)

·         T. Roosevelt–Panama Canal, Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine (background on sovereign debt)

·         W.H. Taft–Dollar Diplomacy in Asia (attempts with railroads) and in Latin America

·         W. Wilson–Intervention in Mexico (Tampico/Pancho Villa)

3.        Caution: Progressive Era domestic reform does not just start in 1900. –Examples of precursors of progressivism in the Gilded Age: Social Gospel, Hull House (settlement house), Interstate Commerce Commission, Populists’ proposed Constitutional changes, voluntary associations (What’s that and why?)

4.        Caution: Efficiency movement in multiple reforms, “scientific management“ or Taylorism (Frederick W.), time-and-motion studies and control of workers accordingly

5.        Caution: Experts, increasing reliance on

6.        Progressive reforms and reformers- Government

·         City– commission (group of experts), city manager

·         State–“laboratories of change,” Robert LaFollette Examples: initiative, referendum, recall, direct primary

·         Federal–increasing use of commissions (a group of experts) to regulate bigness (whether trusts or banks)

·         Constitution–Populist-proposed, Progressive-passed, 1913 16th (income tax) and 17th (direct election of Senators)

7.        Progressive reforms and reformers–Free Press

·         McClure’s Magazine

·         Muckrakers (What’s that?)–Ida Tarbell , Upton Sinclair, Lincoln Stephens; areas investigated

8.        Progressive domestic policy–T. Roosevelt (1901-1908)

·         Trust policy-Northern Securities case–Good trusts in the “public interest,” not bad trusts as “special interests”

·         Labor policy-Square Deal and the coal strike

·         3 Cs–conservation, corporation control, consumerism

·         Consumer Protections - FDA (Food & Drug Administration) and Meat Inspection Act

9.        Progressive domestic policy–W.H.Taft (1908-1912), primarily on-going political fights with TR; split in the Rep party]

10.     4 way split in 1912–TR, Taft, Wilson, and E.V. Debs (Socialist)

11.     Progressive domestic policy–Woodrow Wilson

·         “Triple Wall of Privilege”

-          Trust policy–Federal Trade Commission

-          Bank policy-Federal Reserve and currency

-          Tariff–lowered; income tax, later as amendment

12.     Progressive era and groups (not the 2nd Wilson administration)

·         Caution: increased anti-immigrant, anti-African American

·         African Americans

-          TR & B.T. Washington, meeting in White House on patronage. Southern outrage so TR silent thereafter

-          W. Wilson, 1st time segregation in DC federal jobs

·         Women-labor and Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, 1911, NY City

·         Women-suffragettes

13.     1914- Outbreak of the Great War in Europe (Lesson 2)

·         Allies–Great Britain, France, Russia

·         Central Powers-Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire

14.     War traits and tech - trench warfare, submarine warfare, convoys; flame throwers, land/sea mines, tanks, submarines, poison gas

15.     US and the war

·         Entry into the war in 1917 (Zimmerman Note or Telegram)

·         Major proclaimed goals

-          League of Nations  (Nation not joining –the United States)

-          Self-determination of nations (Look at the maps)

·         Draft; control of agriculture, of industry, of railroads, and speech

·         American entry at crucial time for food supplies, for soldiers

16.     1917 Czar Nicholas, Nicholai Lenin. Bolshevik or Russian Revolution

17.     Treaty of Versailles

·         War guilt clause forced on Germany

·         Reparations forced on Germany (Note: British and French owed bankers in the United States. See the chart.)

·         Nation not signing - United States

18.     World War I and groups (2nd Wilson administration)

·         African Americans-Great Migration (& Steel strike 1919)

·         Racists-Birth of a Nation, rebirth of the Klan

·         Women-support for war and therefore 19th amendment

19.     1920s Presidents (Also called the Jazz Age)

·         Warren G. Harding (Rep), 1920-1923 - Most known for corruption which comes out after his death

·         Calvin Coolidge (Rep), 1923-1924, 1924-1928 –Most known for tax reduction for the wealthy, response to the debt-reparations cycle, vetoing a farm bill and the Bonus Bill

·          Herbert Hoover (Rep), 1928-1932, March—

20.     Post-Great War traits: isolationism, inflation, racial hostilities, strikes (steel, industrial union), unemployment, and bombings.

21.     Economic, tech, and social changes dividing the US in the 1920s (Henry Ford, $5 a day, assembly line + societal changes; Sigmund Freud; Flappers; Scopes Trial;; decline in unionization)

22.     Trends in the 1920s–wage gap between rich and poor; productivity increases, but not wages; market saturation (more products than consumers)

23.     The 1920s and groups

·         African Americans-Harlem Renaissance

·         Immigrants- Sacco and Vanzetti Trial; 1924 Immigration law

·         Racists-

·         Women-flappers



26.     Fascism (Germany, Italy, Japan); Communism (USSR, later China) (See the Learning Quiz on these movements in Lesson 3.)

27.     1928 Republican Herbert Hoover, 1929 Great Depression begins; Hoover’s volunteerism and his Reconstruction Finance Corporation

28.     Hoover and the Bonus Expeditionary March

29.     Deportation of Mexican-Americans even if born here

30.     F.D. Roosevelt (FDR), inaugural March 1933. Domestic policy- Chart of causes of the Great Depression and New Deal response (yellow)

31.     1933+ F.D. Roosevelt–Foreign policy: Good Neighbor Policy; initial isolationism (Destroyers for Bases; Lend-Lease)

32.     Neville Chamberlain/Sudetenland/Munich appeasement

33.     Europe: Slow begin of the war Poland and Germany and Russia

34.     Asia: Pearl Harbor and Bataan Death March

35.     U.S. interment of Japanese inland from U.S. west coast

36.     World War II consequences on American workers/women

37.     Pacific campaign: Guadalcanal/leapfrogging campaign

38.     Europe campaign: Normandy/D.D. Eisenhower; Battle of the Bulge

39.     Atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki

40.     Harry Truman