The Objective Exam consists primarily of multiple choice questions drawn from the terms below.. Reminder: Unit 3 consists of Lessons 1-3. The word Lessons refers to Blackboard learning modules. Blackboard learning modules have a Table of Contents on the left that let you see all of the resources available so you can click on the one you want. All Lessons have links from your instructor and sometimes additional resources such as maps and Learning Quizzes. Note:
· 8 of the 25 questions come from the Learning Quizzes (and those concepts help you understand the other content in the Unit)
17 of them come
from below. Questions are written so you
do not have to prove that you know everything, but that you know something
(Tips on Why This Study Guide Is More of a Prompt Sheet:
o Because of the challenges of understanding the United States in a useful way after World War II, the goal of the Lessons is for you to notice the traits in these period—whether about presidents, the economy, foreign policy, national debt, demographics and age cohorts, the middle class, women, blacks, Latinos, immigrants, farmers, corporations, factory workers, service workers, and culture.
As usual, the
Lessons include a chronology of the major issues for the time period of the
With Unit 3, each chronology is also preceded by a visual that lets you compare the same issues across each time period.}
The 5 Ws rule is a good guide to understanding the items below: you should know Who, What, When, Where, and Why—and sometimes How. You can look up these individual items in the textbook index at the back of the book or find them covered next to an item listed below. The link at the top of each Lesson provides visuals, usually in tables, that let you compare information so you can quickly see similarities and differences.
Abbreviations used in this Study Guide:
· Nations: US (United States), USSR (Soviet Union-now split), Fr (France), Br (Great Britain)
· Regions where US/USSR proxy wars occurred: LA (Latin America), FE (Far East), ME (Middle East)
· Political parties: Dem (Democrat), Rep (Republican), Dix (Dixiecrat) and Am Ind (American Independent)—both segregationist
Post war realities: US occupation of Japan;
Germany partitioned by Fr, Br, US (later West Germany), USSR (later East
Communist: USSR, China; partition of Korea
Atomic bomb: Japan bombed; US only had the technology
2. Presidency: F.D. Roosevelt dead; Harry S Truman (Missouri machine/boss politics, vice-president but not informed)
3. ME: war; Israel declares itself a nation; US recognizes Note: Six Day War (1967), Yom Kippur War (1973)
4. Europe: Marshall Plan
5. US Gov. changes: CIA (Central Intelligence Agency), NSC (National Security Council), Department of Defense (no longer called War Department)
6. Beginning of 2nd Red Scare: Rise of Republicans Richard Nixon (House UAC) and Senator Joe McCarthy. Targets: Alger Hiss/Whittaker Chambers, Hollywood. Techniques: analogy of Salem Witchcraft trial (Arthur Miller’s play The Crucible)
7. 1947+ labor: Taft-Hartley Act, “right to work” states & industries move to low-wage states
8. 1947+ race: Cold War issue by Communists; Jackie Robinson/ Dodgers; executive order to desegregate the US military
9. 1948 Election: Thomas E. Dewey (Rep) vs. Harry S Truman (Dem) vs. J. Strom Thurmond (Dix) His Program: Fair Deal
10. Late 1940s-1950s Domestic: consumerism (pent-up demand), GI Bill/housing/education, draft, white suburbs, large families, women expected to leave jobs; television–ABC, NBC, CBS (radio)
11. 1952 Election: Dwight D. Eisenhower (Rep) vs. Adlai Stevenson (Dem) – Eisenhower’s VP is Richard Nixon (corruption scandals)
12. 1956 Election (a repeat): Dwight D. Eisenhower (Rep) vs. Adlai Stevenson (Dem) – Eisenhower’s VP is still Richard Nixon (unpolished; some foreign policy experience for Eisenhower.)
13. 1950s Domestic: spending above + on military, on airports& on Federal Highway Act of 1956 (interstate highways-as defense issue) Note: car culture/Holiday Inn/McDonalds. Joe McCarthy stopped by many people standing up to stop him.
14. 1950s race: Montgomery, Alabama, boycott (Rosa Parks, Martin Luther King), Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka; Little Rock HS (1957) Eisenhower sends in paratroopers to stop mob
15. 1950s Cohort: Elvis Presley (and TV)
1950s Foreign Policy:
Secretary of State John Foster Dulles
(brinkmanship/massive retaliation) and his brother Allen, head of the CIA). Covert (secret from whom?) operations.
17. 1950s Foreign Policy FE: End of the Korean War at the same partition line. Funding of Fr war vs North Vietnam (Viet Cong)
18. 1960 Election: Richard Nixon (Rep) vs. John F. Kennedy (Dem, Senator, wealthy family, polished) –1st televised debate. His Program: New Frontier
19. 1960s Foreign Policy in LA: Cuban Bay of Pigs (1961, April, p. 1011- implementing as first actions of Kennedy. Admits “colossal mistake.” USSR/Cuba missile crisis, spy planes (1962, Fall, p. 1011-1012) – “quarantine.” Cuba missiles/Turkey missiles; wheat deal; “hotline”
20. 1960s Foreign Policy in FE: Vietnam “advisors,” 16,000 by 1963; more discord, more troops; college as way to avoid draft
21. 1960s+ Foreign General: Green Berets. “flexible response” for guerrilla war.
22. 1960s Foreign Policy in Europe: USSR wall around East Berlin
23. 1960s Domestic: Growing white anger (“silent majority”); Betty Friedan The Feminine Mystique; birth control by FDA; hippies
24. 1960s race segregation by law and custom, but African Americans and whites beginning to challenge it: nonviolent sit-ins (Greensboro, NC); Freedom Riders on buses as interstate commerce (KKK, firebomb of bus, beatings) + media; Martin Luther King, Birmingham Jail, “nonviolent civil disobedience” vs. “Bull” Conner; Gov. George Wallace/ University of Alabama + media
25. Presidency: Kennedy assassinated; Lyndon B. Johnson (Texas politics, vice-president, experienced Senate Majority Leader, a New Dealer, unpolished)
1964 Election: Barry Goldwater (Rep,
opposed to Civil Rights Act, atomic bomb advocate), vs. L.B.
1964 pre/post His Program:
Society – a few examples:
28. 1963+ Foreign Policy in FE: 1st US bombing of Vietnam; 2nd Gulf of Tonkin Resolution. Tet offensive to Saigon; then withdraws (1968)
29. 1968 Pre-election: Assassination of M.L. King, race riots; assassination of Robert Kennedy
30. 1968 Election: Richard M. Nixon (Rep, appeals to “silent majority”) vs. Hubert Humphrey (Dem, MN) vs. George Wallace (Am. Ind.)
1968+ Domestic: Inflation - Nixon does wage and price
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Begins on the prior page
1968+ Foreign: -Nixon announces
“Vietnamization” a way to get the US out of the Vietnam War.
--Nixon upset; set up “plumbers” to find the “leak.”
33. 1972 Election: Richard M. Nixon (Rep) vs. George S. McGovern (Dem
34. Presidency: Nixon resigns after impeachment articles (1974), Gerald Ford (prior speaker of house, vice president after prior vice president Agnew resigns for corruption).
1974-1976 President Ford pardons
Nixon—this was perhaps the best for the country, but not for him to be
elected in 1976. During President Ford’s administration,
36. 1976 Election: Gerald R. Ford (Rep) vs. Jimmy Carter (Dem, Georgia governor, very religious, honorable man
37. 1976-1980 – Domestic: Inflation + slow economy + job losses (stagflation)
1976-1980 – Foreign:
39. 1980 Election: Ronald W. Reagan (Rep, actor, California politician)) vs. Jimmy Carter (Dem)
1980-1988 – Domestic:
- individuals also spend more than they make
(TV as watching the rich)
1980-1988 – Foreign:
42. 1988 Election: George H. Bush (Rep, Vice President for Reagan, father of the president in 2000-2008) vs. Michael Dukakis (Dem)
43. 1988-1992– Domestic: major challenge was the national debt from the
Reagan years and need for new taxes when Bush had promised not to.
44. 1988-1992– Foreign:
45. 1992 Election: George H. Bush (Rep) vs. William Clinton (Dem, governor of Arkansas, seems himself as a New Democrat with some conservative/pro-business traits) vs. Ross Perot (Independent, tech person, rich, upset about free trade agreements which he called “a giant sucking sound” of jobs going away).
46. 1992-2000– Domestic:
- NAFTA – North American Free Trade Agreement –
Canada, US, Mexico
47. 2000 Election: George W. Bush (Rep, governor of Texas, son of H. Bush)vs. Albert Gore (Dem, vice president for President Clinton) vs. Ralph Nader (Green, a consumer advocate)
48. 2000 Election dispute: popular vote to Gore, electoral college vote to W. Bush because of “hanging chads” in Florida.
49. 2000-2008–Foreign: 9/11/2001 World Trade Centers (Twin Towers); war in Iraq and Afghanistan, budget deficits of the “war on terror”
2008 Election: John McCain (Rep, Senator from
Arizona, POW, old) vs. Barack Obama (Dem, Senator, new). Obama
52. 2008-2016– Domestic: an attempt to prevent another financial collapse with the Dodd-Frank bill