Life Expectancy, Birthrate, Males to Females, and Black Population and Proportion to Whites

Issue

New England (CT, ME, MA, NH, RI)

Middle Colonies (DE, NY, NJ, PA)

South (GA, MD, NC, SC, VA)

What was the difference in population in New England and the South?

Life expectancy = 70 (high for England).

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Life expectancy = 40

Population increases 1650-1700 = 4X (Family = 6 to 8 children to maturity)

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Death rate = 1 in 4 dead in infancy; 1 in 2 dead before 20

Male to female = 6 of 10 (early period), or a ratio of 3 males to 2 females

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Male to female = 7.5 of 10 (early period), or a ratio of 3 males to 1 female

What was the proportion of blacks to whites in the three colonial regions in 1763?

Blacks - 16,000

Example: 3% MA

Blacks - 29,000

Example: 8% PA

Blacks - 205,000

Example: 40% VA, 60% Carolina (South)

 

Specifics on Indentured Servants and Headright by the 1720s

Issue

New England (CT, ME, MA, NH, RI)

Middle Colonies (DE, NY, NJ, PA)

South (GA, MD, NC, SC, VA)

Where did the indentured servants who came before and after the 1670s go?

After 1670s, indentured servants immigrated primarily to northern colonies. Think about it: the Middle Colonies still have available land to buy and opportunity for work as indentured servants on farms or in towns.

Before 1670s, 7-8.5 of 10 colonists were indentured

What were early landowning patterns (an issue on the economy as well)?

Common decisions by families about land use.

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Early Headright (land)– VA, MD

But by the 1720s:

·         40-50% - white families with no land

·         5% - wealthy with large land holdings

 

 

Specifics on slavery

Issue

New England (CT, ME, MA, NH, RI)

Middle Colonies (DE, NY, NJ, PA)

South (GA, MD, NC, SC, VA)

What was the population distribution of planters and slaves?

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Slaves in

·         Eastern NJ—iron work

·         Narragansett region of RI

 

Ratio planter to # of slaves/servants:

·         1600s, 1 to usually under 30

·         Early 1700s, 1 to 10-50+

 

Early 1700s, slaves and plantation size:

·         Ύ on plantations of 10+ slaves

·         ½ on plantations of 50+ slaves

 

What was the slave response (or white fear of response)?

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NY – 1712 – arson – 9 whites dead. Later 13 slaves, hanged; 3, burned at stake; 6, suicide.

NY – 1741 – arson rumored by blacks/poor whites. Trial:

30+ executed (13 blacks burned alive; 18 black/4 whites hanged)

70+ banished

 

1739 – SC – Stono Rebellion:

·         Rebellion by 100-150 blacks; killed some whites

·         Were themselves killed in transit – their heads placed on pikes along the roads to terrify others

 

 

New England

·         CT – Connecticut

·         ME – Maine

·         MA – Massachusetts

·         NH – New Hampshire

  • RI – Rhode Island

Middle Colonies

·         DE – Delaware

·         NY – New York

·         NJ – New Jersey

·         PA – Pennsylvania

South

·         GA – Georgia

·         MD – Maryland

·         NC – North Carolina

·         SC – South Carolina

  • VA – Virginia