· Do not assume the dates are things you have to recall on a test. Dates are so you can recognize order of events. Don’t memorize dates; think about meaning and order.
· Tests do not cover all facts, but facts that are representative of major issues. Facts that will be on the test are highlighted in yellow. To succeed, don’t memorize the facts but figure out the whole.
· For on-campus classes, the material we talk about includes facts from Chapter 3 on such issues as demographics and the economy. There is a link to reference information provided at the end.
· This content determines the course of America for at least 200 years but is usually very hard for students.
What’s covered on this webpage so that you can click on the link you want to go directly to what you need:
2 – When content is out of time order, you see a page number to help you.
Example: if you (61) on this webpage, that means you can find more in the textbook on page 61.
· In Blackboard’s Chapter 2, a page from the 9th edition (a full edition instead of the abridged edition we have) and what it said about Bacon’s Rebellion in 1676.
· Page 91 in Blackboard’s Chapter 3 – Do note that the label “Legalization of lifelong slavery” to the right of that page is incorrectly placed. That section is about the early 17th century (the early 1600s) and how “many of the first Africans were treated like indentured servants.” Also notice the 2 links right below it.
· In Blackboard’s Chapter 2, use the map of the regions and its quiz (extra credit but it is on the Unit test).
· Charter colony and the joint-stock corporation and shareholders
· Proprietary colony
· Royal colony
· Freeman (including free blacks)
Indentured servant (English and—until 1660 when the law changed—Africans. See page 91 in
Blackboard’s Chapter 3.)
Note: Africans who had started out as servants and worked off their term of service became free and they were still free when the 1660 law was written.
o Length of time, restrictions, results at end of service
· Slave (initially Africans and later African Americans—Africans who were born in the Americas.)
o Differences between New England and South
o Differences between slavery as practiced in Africa and by the English
o Differences between slave trading after the rising market for labor in the colonies (“middle passage”) – more mechanized and different nations involved
o Caution: Native Americans are also defeated by the English colonists in war and sold in the slave trade.
· Elizabeth and James I and monarchs’ policies about colonies and about the religions of settlers in the colonies
· English traditions (Magna Carta and Parliament) and the development of legislative, elected assemblies (a pattern increased by joint-stock companies)
· Type: Charter/joint-stock – Virginia Company
· Religion: Not an issue in this settlement, but officially Church of England (Anglicans are Christians > Protestants > members of the Church of England.)
· Key Figure during the “starving time”: John Smith
· Key Terms: c. 1619: “headright,” tobacco, General Assembly (AKA House of Burgesses), Africans sold into the region (some as indentured servants, some as slaves)
· Key Figure following bankruptcy (1625) and Virginia becoming a royal colony: Sir William Berkeley (arrived 1642)
· Native American Encounters: Initial conflict because of settlers stealing food from Indians (John Ratcliffe incident). 1622 attack by Indians killing ¼ of settlers; retaliation by settlers and their “decimating” the Indian population. (61-63).
· Type: Proprietary
· Religion: haven for Roman Catholics – but Protestants became more numerous (Catholics are Christians > Catholics.)
· Key Figure: Sir George Calvert, Lord Baltimore
· Key Terms: small farms granted to settlers, tobacco
Note: They first left England in 1608 to go to Holland (the Dutch) which allowed religious freedom.
· Type: Meant to be a settlement within the Virginia Company territory, but off course
· Religion: Separatists (Separatists are Christians > Protestants > Calvinists.)
· Key Figure: William Bradford
· Key Terms: General Court, but only church members were members of the Court
· Key Document: Mayflower Compact
· Famous Phrase: “just and equal laws”
· Native American Encounters: Settled in an Indian village (emptied by disease)
· Type: Charter/joint-stock – Massachusetts Bay Company (but action with charter)
· Religion: Puritans (Puritans are Christians > Protestants > Calvinists.) Established as a theocracy.
· Key Figure: John Winthrop
· Key Terms: General Court (an assembly) - all male church members, even those not owning shares, were voters
· Famous Phrase: “city upon a hill”
· Type: Initially unchartered
· Religion: Allows freedom of religion in the colony
· Key Figure: Roger Williams, banished by Massachusetts Bay
· Key Terms: Governed by heads of household
Famous Phrases: “forced worship…stinks in God’s
Forcing others to have your religion – “soul rape” (64)
Desire for land “as great a God with us English as Gold was a God with the Spanish” (65)
· Other Views of Williams which Massachusetts rejected:
· Native Americans own their land
· Native Americans—and others—have the right to their own religion (64)
· Separation of church and state
· Native American Encounters: Williams purchased land from the Indians—and did not have problems with them
Anne Hutchinson—banished following a trial in Massachusetts, has followers but does not found a colony.
· Similarities with Massachusetts Bay: a theocracy
· Difference: voting not just for church members
· Famous Phrase: “the foundation of authority is laid, firstly, in the free consent of the people…”
· New Hampshire to Captain John Mason but later a royal colony;
· Maine to Sir Ferdinando Gorges but later part of Massachusetts
· Efforts to convert and isolate Indians – “praying towns”
· 1636 – massacre (what does that word mean?) by Puritans; then Pequot War; then treaty ending that war (65)
Caution: This section (61) points out that the French and Dutch do not treat Native Americans as to the Spanish and the English. Both are involved with the fur trade. (What does that tell you about what their actions have to be?)
· Charles I and the Civil War and Oliver Cromwell’s Puritan Commonwealth
· Political positions
· Religious positions
· 1649 Maryland passed the Act of Toleration making belief in the trinity sufficient to be allowed religious freedom for Catholics – The Catholics are trying to protect their own religious freedom.
· 1654 Maryland, now dominated by Puritans, ended that protection for Catholics.
· End of the Puritan Commonwealth and Restoration of the dead king’s son (Charles II)
· Political positions and a safe focus for the monarchy
· Religious positions
Initially colony of The Netherlands – many ethnic groups, many religions. Attacked by English.
· Type: Proprietary
· Religion: Very diverse, including Jews (small group)
· Key Figure: King’s brother James, Duke of York (and thus renamed New York)
· Type: Proprietary - a gift from the Duke of York to two friends, one being a native of the isle of Jersey (thus named New Jersey)
Note “Sylvania” means woods—thus Penn’s woods.
· Type: Proprietary, but freemen (those paying taxes, owning property) elected council and assembly
· Religion: open to most but a haven for members of the Society of Friends, or Quakers (Quakers are Christians > Protestants>Church of England—rejection of.) – Cruelly persecuted.
· Key Figure: William Penn
· Key Terms: egalitarian (male and female), pacifists, no church hierarchy
· Famous Phrases: “tremble at the word of the Lord” and belief in the “Inner Light”
· Native American Encounters: Penn purchased land from the Indians—and did not have problems with them for 50 years (64)
1704 – Chose its own legislature (governor was the same as Pennsylvania)
· Page 91 in Blackboard’s Chapter 3 – Do note that the label “Legalization of lifelong slavery” to the right of that page is incorrectly placed. That section is about the early 17th century (the early 1600s) and how “many of the first Africans were treated like indentured servants.” Also notice the 2 links right below it
Carolinas is the Latin word for Charles II, the current king. 1 colony but divided between North Carolina and South Carolina in 1712. Both became royal colonies later.
· Type: Proprietary
· Religion: religions freedom (unless from Rhode Island)
Key Terms: Barbados (where many came from); “headrights,” rice, shipbuilding
materials (like tar)
Caution: The colony will follow the Barbados pattern with slaves and will have a high concentration of slaves compared to whites and will by the 1730s have a slave rebellion.
The colony is named Georgia for King George II, the current king.
· Type: proprietary with 21 trustees
· Religion: Not an issue in this colony
· Key Figure: James Oglethorpe
· Key Terms: buffer colony, “worthy poor.” Initially no slaves, no rum, and small plots of land.
50,000 Native Americans sold into slavery by English settlers.
Situation in 1676:
· Large planters had bought up lands except for inland.
· ¼ “free white men in Virginia were landless.” They were “poor, indebted, discontented and armed.”
Conflicts at multiple levels:
· Native Americans against the landless
· Wealthy planters against “landless servants, small farmers, and even slaves”
· Berkeley (royal governor) against Bacon (leader of the rebellion)
· Berkley (and the trade with the Indians for deerskin) against Bacon (leader of those who wanted land)
Caution: Make sure you read in Blackboard’s Chapter 2, a page from the 9th edition (a full edition) and what it said about Bacon’s Rebellion in 1676.
Native Americans were “reduced … to poverty” and fur trade gone. In the war, they lacked food and ammunition.
This war “killed more people … in proportion to the population than any American conflict since.”
· 1662 – “Half-way” covenant
· 1691 - Was made a royal colony--Includes “required toleration of religious dissenters having to tolerate other religions (such as Quakers)” (85)
· 1692 - Salem
Notes about English History after 1689—but they do not change the events on the prior pages
· Charles II dies. His brother James II becomes king—and had a Catholic 2nd wife and Catholic baby and he is no longer king. This is the Glorious Revolution and Parliament has more power. Tip: The ideas justifying this revolution are the used to justify the American Revolution.
· In 1714, the last of the available English kings dies and the nearest blood kin are German, the Hanovers—thus George I, II, and III. . Tip: George III is the king at the time of the American Revolution
· Political positions and the limited focus for the monarchy
· Religious position – Any English king or queen must be a Protestant.
Comparison Tables for Provincial America (the provinces of Great Britain) - These tables make it possible to compare reference information on the colonial sections.
Copyright C. J. Bibus, Ed.D. 2003-2017
History – Dr. Bibus
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