· Order matters, not dates. Dates are there so you do not deceive yourself about order of events. Tip: Nothing can cause something that happens after it.
· Facts are there to help you understand the whole. You do not have to recall all the facts. The Study Guide can help.
· This content determines the course of America for at least 200 years and part of it is still determining the course of events. Do not assume.
· Use the Learning Quizzes for Lesson 2 before you use the Lesson.
· Use Ctrl-F to locate specific things. Example: if you wanted the Salem Witch Trial, try Ctrl-F with the word Witch.
Before you start to read, look over the table of
contents. You can also click on a link and go directly to it:
Lesson 2 – Use the Learning Quiz on the Map 1st.
11. Representative colonies and individuals:
· Roger Williams (later founds Rhode Island)
· Anne Hutchinson
17. Parliament and king as England’s government
18. Servitude and rebellion – Use the Learning Quiz on Scarcity and Surplus 1st
· Virginia and Africans and indentured servants (later landless freemen) pre-1660 and post-1660
· Bacon’s Rebellion of English landless freeman – what happens and why
Table of Contents
Tip: In class, we will start with the 2 “Types of…”topics and then New England.
· Charter colony - The king gave a business a charter and the business was the owner of the colony and its government followed that of a joint-stock corporation with shareholders. The two charter colonies were Virginia and Massachusetts Bay.
· Proprietary colony – The king gave land to a friend or friends and the friend was the owner of the colony and determined its government. Except for Maryland, the proprietary colonies occurred after 1660.
· Royal colony – The first royal colony had been a charter colony (Virginia) that went bankrupt and the king could not leave the people without government so he sent a governor.
Who Gives Power?
Who Rules There?
Who Pays for Government?
· Freeman (including free blacks)
· Indentured servant (English and—until 1660 when the law changed—Africans. Note: Africans who had started out as servants and worked off their term of service became free and they were still free when the 1660 law was written.
o Length of time, restrictions, results at end of service
· Slave (initially Africans and later African Americans—Africans who were born in the Americas.)
o Differences between New England and South
o Differences between slavery as practiced in Africa and by the English
o Differences between slave trading after the rising market for labor in the colonies (“middle passage”) – more mechanized and different nations involved
o Caution: Native Americans are also defeated by the English colonists in war and sold in the slave trade.
· Elizabeth and James I and monarchs’ policies about colonies and about the religions of settlers in the colonies
· English traditions (Magna Carta and Parliament) and the development of legislative, elected assemblies (a pattern increased by joint-stock companies-Why? the clue: shareholders)
· Type: Charter/joint-stock – Virginia Company
· Religion: Not an issue in this settlement, but officially Church of England (Anglicans are Christians > Protestants > members of the Church of England.)
· Key Figure during what is commonly called the “starving time”: John Smith
· Key Terms: c. 1619: headright, tobacco, General Assembly (AKA House of Burgesses), Africans sold into the region (some as indentured servants, some as slaves) See the Primary on Anthony Johnson. See this link from the Learning Quizzes on what is different before 1660 and after 1660.
· Key Figure following bankruptcy (1625) and Virginia becoming a royal colony: Sir William Berkeley (arrived 1642)
· Native American Encounters: Initial conflict because of settlers stealing food from Indians (John Ratcliffe incident). 1622 attack by Indians killing ¼ of settlers; retaliation by settlers and their decimating the Indian population.
Video: Settling the Southern Colonies Search Word: Anthony -This applies to Maryland’s economy as well.
Tip: Virginia and Maryland are talked about as the Chesapeake Bay colonies because the colonies are located around the Chesapeake Bay.
· Type: Proprietary
· Religion: haven for Roman Catholics – but Protestants became more numerous (Catholics are Christians > Catholics.)
· Key Figure: Sir George Calvert, Lord Baltimore
· Key Terms: small farms granted to settlers, tobacco
Note: They first left England in 1608 to go to Holland (the Dutch) which allowed religious freedom.
· Type: Meant to be a settlement within the Virginia Company territory, but off course and the ship lands in the north.
Religion: Separatists (Separatists are Christians >
Protestants > Calvinists.)
Tip: Separatist – They want to separate from the Church of England.
· Key Figure: William Bradford
· Key Terms: General Court (an assembly), but only male church members were members of the Court
· Key Document: Mayflower Compact – Why required? See above where they were supposed to land.
· Famous Phrase: “just and equal laws” – for themselves and the “strangers” (non-Separatists and—in the view of Bradford—a rough group) among them when they landed. If you do not understand why offering “just and equal laws” to a rough group was very smart, please ask. If you do not know the power of the word just and of the word equal, please ask.
· Native American Encounters: Settled in an Indian village (emptied by disease)
· Other Name: Pilgrims
· Type: Charter/joint-stock – Massachusetts Bay Company (but action with charter)
Religion: Puritans (Puritans are Christians
> Protestants > Calvinists.) Established as a theocracy.
Tip: Puritan – They want to stay in the Church of England but purify it.
· Key Figure: John Winthrop
· Key Terms: General Court (an assembly, a legislature) - all male church members, even those not owning shares, were voters – Why would that be a problem to the mother country?
· Famous Phrase: “city upon a hill”
Video: Settling the New England Colonies Search Word: a hill (as in a city upon a hill) Tips: words utopia and theocracy
· Type: Initially unchartered
· Religion: Allows freedom of religion in the colony
· Key Figure: Roger Williams, banished by Massachusetts Bay
· Key Terms: Governed by heads of household
Famous Phrases: “forced worship…stinks in God’s
Forcing others to have your religion – “soul rape”
Desire for land “as great a God with us English as Gold was a God with the Spanish”
· Other Views of Williams which Massachusetts rejected:
· Native Americans own their land
· Native Americans—and others—have the right to their own religion
· Separation of church and state
· Native American Encounters: Williams purchased land from the Indians—and did not have problems with them
Video: Settling the New England Colonies Search Word: Williams
Anne Hutchinson—banished following a trial in Massachusetts, has followers but she does not found a colony.
Video: Settling the New England Colonies Search Word: Hutchison – It is misspelled in the video
· Similarities with Massachusetts Bay: a theocracy
· Difference: voting not just for church members
· Famous Phrase: “the foundation of authority is laid, firstly, in the free consent of the people…”
· New Hampshire to Captain John Mason but later a royal colony;
· Maine to Sir Ferdinando Gorges but later part of Massachusetts
· Efforts to convert and isolate Indians – “praying towns”
· 1636 – massacre (what does that word mean?) by Puritans; then Pequot War; then treaty ending that war
Caution: The French and Dutch do not treat Native Americans as to the Spanish and the English. Both are involved with the fur trade. (What does that tell you about what their actions have to be?)
· Charles I (eventually beheaded by vote of Parliament) and the Civil War and Oliver Cromwell’s Puritan Commonwealth – a theocracy
· Political positions
· Religious positions
· 1649 Maryland passed the Act of Toleration making belief in the trinity sufficient to be allowed religious freedom for Catholics – The Catholics are trying to protect their own religious freedom.
· 1654 Maryland, now dominated by Puritans, ended that protection for Catholics.
· End of the Puritan Commonwealth and Restoration of the dead king’s son (Charles II) – a monarchy again
· Political positions and trade and colonies as a safe focus for the monarchy
· Religious positions
Video: Diversifying British America Search Word: the first words “the best poor man’s country.
Initially colony of The Netherlands – many ethnic groups, many religions. Attacked by English.
· Type: Proprietary
· Religion: Very diverse, including Jews (small group)
· Key Figure: King’s brother James, Duke of York (and thus renamed New York)
Video: Diversifying British America Search Word: Dutch and after the takeover also Zenger
· Type: Proprietary - a gift from the Duke of York to two friends, one being a native of the isle of Jersey (thus named New Jersey)
Note Sylvania means woods—thus Penn’s woods.
· Type: Proprietary, but freemen (those paying taxes, owning property) elected council and assembly
· Religion: open to most but a haven for members of the Society of Friends, or Quakers (Quakers are Christians > Protestants>Church of England—rejection of.) – Cruelly persecuted.
· Key Figure: William Penn
· Key Terms: egalitarian (male and female), pacifists, no church hierarchy
· Famous Phrases: “tremble at the word of the Lord” and belief in the “Inner Light”
· Native American Encounters: Penn purchased land from the Indians—and Pennsylvania did not have problems with them for 50 years
Video: Diversifying British America Search Word: Penn – very short description
1704 – Chose its own legislature (governor was the same as Pennsylvania)
· We will discuss the Primaries related to this. They are in this lesson.
· See this link from the Learning Quizzes on what is different before 1660 and after 1660.
Video: Settling the Southern Colonies Search Word: Anthony and Bacon
Carolinas is the Latin word for Charles II, the current king. 1 colony but divided between North Carolina and South Carolina in 1712. Both became royal colonies later.
· Type: Proprietary
· Religion: religions freedom (unless from Rhode Island)
Key Terms: Barbados (where many came from); headrights, rice,
shipbuilding materials (like tar)
Caution: The colony will follow the Barbados pattern with slaves and will have a high concentration of slaves compared to whites and will by the 1730s have a slave rebellion (covered in Lesson 3).
Video: Distinctive Society Search Word: tribal (on community in the South and on African slavery differing from colonial slavery in the English colonies)
Video: Distinctive Society Search Word: majority
The colony is named Georgia for King George II, the current king.
· Type: proprietary with 21 trustees
· Religion: Not an issue in this colony
· Key Figure: James Oglethorpe
· Key Terms: buffer colony, a colony for what they called the “worthy poor.” Initially no slaves, no rum, and small plots of land. Later on, slaves, rum, and large plots of land.
50,000 Native Americans sold into slavery by English settlers.
Situation in 1676:
· Large planters had bought up lands except for inland.
¼ of free white men in Virginia were
landless. As Governor Berkeley noted,
they were “poor, indebted, discontented and armed.”
See this link from the Learning Quizzes on what is different before 1660 and after 1660 in the South.
Conflicts at multiple levels:
· Native Americans against the landless
· Wealthy planters against landless servants, small farmers, and even slaves
· Berkeley (royal governor) against Bacon (leader of the rebellion)
· Berkley (and the trade with the Indians for deerskin) against Bacon (leader of those who wanted land)
Native Americans were reduced to poverty and the fur trade gone. In the war, they lacked food and ammunition.
This war killed—proportionally—incredible numbers of people, with some historians stating it killed more people than any conflict in America since then.
· 1662 – “Half-way” covenant – Their children did have the intense religious encounter with God that their parents felt they had had. The solution was to admit them into the church and government “half-way.”
· 1691 – They were no longer a charter colony, but were turned into royal colony and were governed by a British official. They were required to practice religious toleration of religious dissenters. Previously, they had persecuted other religions (such as Quakers).
· 1692 – Salem Witch Trial – The culmination of pressures such as the ones above and also worn-out land and pressures on the economy, the Salem Witch Trial resulted in the death of 20 people. Accusations were enough. To use a phrase from a former professor of mine, how do you prove that you had not visited your accuser in the middle of the night and flown them up in the air?
Notes about English History after 1689—but they do not change the events on the prior webpages
· Charles II dies. His brother James II becomes king—and had a Catholic 2nd wife and Catholic baby and he is no longer king. This is the Glorious Revolution and Parliament has more power. Tip: The ideas justifying this revolution are the used to justify the American Revolution.
· In 1714, the last of the available English kings dies and the nearest blood kin are German, the Hanovers—thus George I, II, and III. . Tip: George III is the king at the time of the American Revolution
· Political positions and the limited focus for the monarchy
· Religious position – Any English king or queen must be a Protestant.
Copyright C. J. Bibus, Ed.D. 2003-2021
History – Dr. Bibus
281.239.1577 or email@example.com
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