Lesson 4: Essential Transformations--Noticing What Changed Where from 1800 to 1860


Lesson 4 – Use its Learning Quiz on the 1800-1860 Map 1st.

13.   Removal of the Native Americans over time from the North and from the South to west of the Mississippi

14.   Transformation of the Supreme Court over time

a.      Marbury v. Madison and judicial review

b.      Chief Justice John Marshall, 1801-1835 and his decisions (corporations, power of the national government over the states)

15.   Development of sectional differences between the four sections: Northeast, Northwest, Southeast, and Southwest (with the eastern sections being the original colonies). Notice such things as whether urban/rural, use slaves (or not), have immigrants (or not), have factories (or not), have worn out land (or not), and transportation and internal improvements.

16.   Immigration and rise of nativism as a political party

a.      Irish mainly to Northeast, type of work, their religion

b.      Germans mainly to new Northwest, type of work

17.   Developing technology and economy in the North and wealth but lack of diversification in the South

a.      Cotton gin, inventor and role in the westward expansion of slavery

b.      Cotton textile mills, Lowell Mills in New England (but British textile mills were the major purchasers of Southern cotton)

c.      New internal improvements in transportation mainly in the North—canals, turnpikes (toll roads), and later the railroad.

d.      New means of transportation such as Conestoga wagons, steamboats, steamships, clipper ships

e.      New agricultural machinery, such as Deere plow, McCormick reaper


With Lesson 4, it is all about change:



Look through the sets of rows (with an explanation between the rows) and try to be that kid born about 1800.


·        Click here for the era from 1800 to about 1830.
(UIL: http://www.cjbibus.com/1800_1830_comparison_Essentials.htm)

·        Click here for the era from about 1830 to 1860
(UIL: http://www.cjbibus.com/1830_1860_comparison.htm)




Northeast and Northwest:  Economy and Transportation

Notice the difference between the Northeast and the Northwest and what changes because of it: New lands had 4 X productivity of old land. Also both Northeast and Northwest had invention and technology.



Circa 1800

Circa 1820

Circa 1840 and Beyond

Economy – Northeast

Old lands had low productivity compared to new. Farmers became surplus labor. Most students recognize that value goes down when you are surplus (and up when you are scarce).

Textile factories – Raw cotton from the South

Young women and families work in nearby factories.

Continues with more factories developing

Continues with farming being for local cities

In the future, Irish (poor) immigrants to coastal cities usually become cheap factory workers living in crowded slums.

All these things will continue and the Northeast focuses on manufacturing using technology and—although not covered on this page—finance and trade.

Economy – Northwest

New lands (New lands had 4 X productivity of old land.)

Sold to Northeast and world

Continues; use farming technology, not slavery

In the future, German immigrants to what is now the Midwest to buy farms

All these things will continue and the Northwest focuses on large farms and technology as the labor source.

Transportation North & internal improvements!

Rivers & Ports

Rivers & roads - turnpikes

Canals connecting Northwest with Northeast and from New York City to the world

The Northwest and the Northeast are becoming 1.

Southeast and Southwest:  Economy and Transportation

Notice the difference between the Southeast and the Southwest and what changes because of it: New lands had 4 X productivity of old land. Unlike the North, the only famous technology is the cotton gin:

·        Invented by Yankee Eli Whitney on a visit to the South

·        A very simple machine that could be used by slave labor—The cotton gin revives slavery, an institution which was expected to die.



Circa 1800

Circa 1820

Circa 1840 and Beyond

Economy – Southeast

Old land – slaves surplus labor but cotton gin revives slavery

Begins Southeast slaves sold to Southwest - forced migration

Continues Southeast slaves sold to Southwest & Texas - forced migration

All these things will continue and the Southeast remains less wealthy but remains agricultural.

Economy – Southwest


New land & global market crop
Cotton – Sold to North

Cotton – Sold to the North and to Britain

The Southerners focus on “King Cotton”—with the South being the nation’s chief exporter.

Transportation- South



Steamboats on Miss. River

Steamships to Liverpool

The Southwest and the Southeast becoming 1 with Britain.

Just a Thought Question to Carry Forward to Unit 3

Which section the North or the South is better equipped to fight a prolonged war? You will find information to help you answer that question.

Native Americans Who Were in North and South



Circa 1800

Circa 1820

Circa 1840 and Beyond

Native Americans in the North

Had been forced West of Appalachians.

Had been forced West of the Mississippi River by W.H. Harrison, the military hero over the Indians at the battle of Tippecanoe (and later President). The War of 1812 also meant losses because they sided with the British in hopes of getting land back.




Native Americans in the South

Had been forced West of Appalachians.

5 Civilized Tribes. Example: The Cherokee had a written language, a constitution, clothing and housing similar to their neighbors—and as Southerners they even had slaves

1830s – The Cherokee sued in cases that went to the Supreme Court, but they forced in a forced march West of the Mississippi River into the Oklahoma. The forced march was called the “Trail of Tears” because of the fatalities.



The Supreme Court and Its Influence on the Nation (including information the Cherokee case)



Circa 1800

Circa 1820

Circa 1840 and Beyond

Supreme Court review

Established but weak

Marshall in Marbury v. Madison sets the precedent of judicial review. This is complex but the issue is that Marshall orders him not to do something he doesn’t want to do. #

In the 1830s, they rule in favor of the Cherokee keeping their land, but Andrew Jackson ignores the cases. @

When Marshall dies, Jackson appoints Justice Taney who was less interested in corporate power

Supreme Court power

Established but weak

Cases pro-national power, pro-corporations

Central until Marshall’s death

The protections of the cases continue in our laws.

# If you order someone NOT to do something they don’t want to do, you haven’t proved anything about your power.
@ If you order someone to do something they don’t want to do, then we know your (lack of) power.


Who Were the Chief Justices of the Supreme Court?

1.      1800-1835 - Chief Justice John Marshall, the Chief Justice appointed by the last Federalist President, John Adams in 1800 during the lame duck period
If you want more information, click here for
here for more power to the national government, to the Supreme Court, and to corporations and contracts

Two cases

·        Marbury v. Madison established judicial review (in part because the executive branch was ordered to do what it planned to do anyway)

·        How review by the court was handled by the executive branch (Andrew Jackson’s administration) regarding the Cherokee:  There are 2 Supreme Court decisions in favor of the Cherokees, in 1830 and 1832, Cherokee Nation v. Georgia and Worcester v. Georgia. They do not have a consequence, however, because the executive branch ignores the cases and the Court and Congress wants the Cherokee out.


2.      1835-1864 - Chief Justice Roger Taney, the jurist with a different view from Marshall who was appointed by Andrew Jackson at Marshall’s death.



Copyright C. J. Bibus, Ed.D. 2003-2017


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History – Dr. Bibus

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