1. Pre-Columbian Native Americans covered
· Aztecs and Incas – in Chapter 1
· Algonquians and Iroquois – in Chapter 2
2. Expansion of Europe:
· From feudalism and serfs bound to the land and nobles owning that land
· To the rise of a “middle class” and of towns and cities
· To the Renaissance after the 1300s and its focus on science and tools for exploration
3. Treaty of Tordesillas (also known as the Line of Demarcation)
4. Changes in religion from Roman Catholicism to the Protestant Reformation.
· Martin Luther
· John Calvin
5. Spain and the new world:
· The Spanish and the conquistadores, including Cortés, and the Aztecs
· The Spanish and the Incas
· The Spanish and encomienda
· Control Native Americans and the introduction of slavery of Africans
6. Columbian Exchange
· crops and foods and animals (and horses)
· 90% death rate of Native Americans.
7. Expansion of Spanish conquest
· Role of the monarchy
· Role of religion (Pueblos example).
8. French beginnings
9. Dutch (the name for people from The Netherlands) and English beginnings
· Piracy (English term “sea dogs”)
· The shift - defeat of the Spanish Invincible Armada
· Queen Elizabeth, Sir Walter Raleigh, and “lost colony” at Roanoke.
10. Look carefully. What weakened the Spanish empire and what strengthened the English one.
Copyright C. J. Bibus, Ed.D. 2003-2016
History – Dr. Bibus
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