Great Depression to the New Deal to the New Challenges in the World

Lesson 3 and Uses Its Learning Quiz--------------------------

19.    The 1920s & Europe- Capitalism; Fascism (Germany, Italy, Japan); Communism (USSR, later China); youth

20.    1930s (Great Depression) Presidents & Major Issues

·        Causes of the “Crash” and the Great Depression

·        Herbert Hoover (Rep), 1928-1932, March—Most known for response to “crash,” debt-reparations cycle, & Bonus March

·        25% unemployed, business stopped, teachers not paid, houses foreclosed, runs on the banks

·        Franklin D. Roosevelt/FDR (Dem) 1932-1936, 1936-1940, 1940-1944, 1944-1945

-         March 1933-1st 100 days-National bank holiday

-         Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)

-         Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)

-         Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)

-         Agriculture Adjustment Act (AAA)

-         1936 shift-Social Security Act, Fair Labor Standards Act
(Note: Father Coughlin, F. Townsend, Huey Long)

21.    1930s (Great Depression) foreign policy Presidents Hoover & FDR Good Neighbor Policy; Hoover, non-recognition of aggression


1.      Brief background on fascism and communism

Tip: Notice the Learning Quizzes in this Lesson.

·        Fascism

o   1920s Italy – Mussolini (“Il Duce”) and Black Shirts

o   1920s Germany – Hitler (Führer)– Nazi (National Socialist German Workers) – Aryans (with hatred for Jews, Gypsies, Poles) -1933 Becomes Chancellor

o   Officially against communism

·        Communism in Russia

o   1918 – Lenin

o   Late 1920s – Stalin


2.      1928-1932 – Herbert Hoover, inheritor of the Great Crash

·        1928-1932 – Voluntarism, a Progressive tradition

·        1931 Moratorium on debt/reparations cycle

·        1931 Hawley Smoot Tariff

·        1932 (the election year) – Shift with the Emergency Relief and Construction Act

·        The “holiday” movements

·        1932 Bonus March


3.      The Election of Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR)

Click here for the chronology of Hoover’s term with highlights through March 1933. Link Address:

Click here for depression problems compared with the New Deal solutions. Link Address:

click here for a printable PDF of this file. Link Address:

(Depending on your browser, the links may not work in the pdf version.)


Chronology of FDR’s TermsCaution: This is not all on the test! The purpose is you can see all if you want it.


4.      Second New Deal – what makes it happen

·        Huey Long

·        Francis Townsend

·        Father Charles E. Coughlin


5.      Second New Deal – what changes

·        Unemployed – WPA

·        Labor – Wagner Act plus General Motors “sit-down” strike in 1938  (This 1937 strike is by an industrial union—one made up of both skilled and unskilled workers.)

·        Aged and disabled – Social Security Act

·        Taxing the rich

·        Court-packing plan – It fails because of the American people; it succeeds indirectly.


6.      Caution:  Not all suffering is the same in the Great Depression. Human consequences vary:

·        By 1932, 25% out of work – homeless, hungry, relief (charity for essential survival) running out of money, people stopping courts from foreclosing on property (think of Shays’s rebellion)

·        Worse for working women

·        Worse for minorities

o   African Americans (layoffs) – racism - Eleanor. Roosevelt – some programs

o   Mexicans (forced deportation of them and their children)

o   Asians (loss of farm labor jobs)

·        Worse for regions hit by dust bowl - Okies

·        Worse for farmers – Farmers Holiday Association

·        Worse for vets – Bonus March


7.      Foreshadowing of World War II

·        1931 Japan invades Manchuria

·        1935 Italy invades Ethiopia

·        1936 Germany reoccupies the Rhineland

·        1936 Germany, Italy mutual defense pact

·        1936 Spanish Civil War – practice with the new weapons and methods

·        1937 Panay incident Japan in China

·        1938 Germany takes Sudetenland/Munich – Chamberlain

·        1938 Kristallnacht (night of broken glass)


Copyright C. J. Bibus, Ed.D. 2003-2020


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